Research Methods Key Terms Flashcards Preview

A Level Psychology > Research Methods Key Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Research Methods Key Terms Deck (115)
Loading flashcards...
1

Experimental Method

Involves the manipulation of an independent variable to measure the effect on the dependent variable. Experiments may be laboratory, field, natural or quasi

2

Aim

A general statement of what the researcher intends to investigate. In other words: the purpose of the study

3

Hypothesis

A clear, precise, testable statement that states the relationship between the variables to be tested. Stated at the beginning of the study

4

Directional Hypothesis

States the direction of the difference or relationship

5

Variables

Any "thing" that can vary or change during an investigation. Variables are generally used in experiments to determine if changes occur in one thing result In changes to another

6

Independent Variable (IV)

Some aspects of the experimental situation that is manipulated by the researcher, or changes naturally- so the effect on the DV can be measured

7

Dependent Variable (DV)

The variable that is measured by the researcher. Any effect on the DV should be caused by the change in the IV

8

Operationalization

Clearly defining variables in terms of how they can be measured

9

Extraneous Variable (EV)

Any variable, other than the IV, that may have an effect on the DV, if it is not controlled. EV's are nuisance variables that do not vary systematically with the IV

10

Confounding Variable

Any variable, other than the IV, that may have effected the DV, so we cannot be sure of the true source of changes to the DV. Confounding variables vary systematically with the IV

11

Demand Characteristics

Any cue from the researcher or the research situation that may be interpreted by the participant as revelling the purpose of the investigation. This may lead to a participant changing their behaviour within the research situation

12

Investigator Effects

Any effect of the investigators behaviour (conscious or unconscious) on the research outcome (the DV). This may include everything from the design of the study to the selection of, and interaction with, participants during the research process

13

Randomisation

The use of chance in order to control for the effects of bias when designing materials and deciding the order of conditions

14

Standardisation

Using exactly the some formalised procedures and instructions for all participants in a research study

15

Experimental Design

The different ways in which the testing of participants can be organised in relation to the experimental conditions

16

Independent Groups Design

Participants are allocated to different groups where each group represents one condition

17

Repeated Measures

All participants take part in all conditions of the experiment

18

Matched Pairs Design

Pairs of participants are first matched on some variable that may affect the DV. Then one member of each pair is assigned to condition A, and the other to condition B

19

Random Allocation

An attempt to control participant variables in an independent groups design, which ensures that each participant has the same chance of being in one condition as any other

20

Counterbalancing

An attempt to control the effects of order in a repeated measure design, half the participants experience the conditions in one order, the other half in the opposite order. AKA ABBA

21

Laboratory Experiment

An experiment that takes place in an controlled environment within which the researcher manipulates the IV and records the effects on the DV, whilst maintaining strict control of extraneous variables

22

Field Experiment

An experiment that takes place in a natural setting within which the researcher manipulates the IV and records the effects of the DV

23

Natural Experiment

An experiment where the change on the IV is not brought about by the researcher but would have happened even if the researcher had not been there. The researcher records the effect on the DV

24

Quasi-Experiment

A study that is almost an experiment but lacks key ingredients. The IV has not been determined by anyone, the variables simply exist, such as age

25

Population

A group of people who are the focus of the researchers interest, from which a smaller sample is drawn

26

Sample

A group of people who take part in a research investigation. The sample is drawn from the population and is presumed to be representative of that population

27

Sampling Techniques

The method used to select people from the population

28

Bias

In the context of sampling, when certain groups may be over or under represented within the sample selected. This limits the extent to which generalisation can be made to the target population

29

Generalisation

The extent to which findings and conclusions from a particular investigation can be broadly applied to the population. This is made possible if the sample of participants is representative of the population

30

Ethical Issues

These arise when a conflict exists between the rights of participants in research studies and the goals to produce authentic, valid and worthwhile results