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Flashcards in Social Influence Theories Deck (30)
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Types and Explanations of Conformity-Internalisation

Occurs when a person genuinely accepts the group norms. Change happens in private as well as public. It is a permanent change


Types and Explanations of Conformity-Identification

We conform to the group because we identify with it. We not agree with their stance, but we conform in public


Types and Explanations of Conformity-Compliance

"Going along with others". A short term change where the opinion stops once the group pressure stops


Types and Explanations of Conformity-Informational Social Influence

Occurs when we agree with the opinion of the majority because we think that it is correct, and we want to be correct. It is likely to happen it situations when we don't know what behaviour is right


Types and Explanations of Conformity-Normative Social Influence

It is an emotional process, where we behave with the norms of society to gain social approval. It is likely to occur in situations where we feel concerned about rejection and/or social approval


Types and Explanations of Conformity-Evaluation

+Research support for ISI-Lucas et al study
-Individual differences play as huge role in NSI- some people are not concerned about other approval, while others crave it
-ISI and NSI work together-Are they two different processes in human conformity?


Obedience:Social-Psychological Factors-Agentic State

We are in an Agentic state when we obey an destructive authority figure, according to Milgram. We act as an "agent" as believe we are acting for someone else. We experience high anxiety when we realise what we are doing is wrong, but feel powerless to disobey


Obedience:Social-Psychological Factors-Agentic State-Autonomous State

The opposite of the agentic state, we are able to control our own actions


Obedience:Social-Psychological Factors-Agentic State Agentic Shift

The shift between the autonomous state and the agentic state. This occurs when we perceive someone as a figure of authority


Obedience:Social-Psychological Factors-Agentic State- Evaluation

+Research support-Blass and Schmitt study
-Limited Explanation- doesn't explain why people can disobey in some situations, but not others


Obedience:Social-Psychological Factors-Legitimacy of Authority

People who are higher up the social hierarchy have more influence over others. They have to power to punish other. People learn the respect those who have legitimate authority from childhood


Obedience:Social-Psychological Factors-Legitimacy of Authority-Evaluation

+A useful account of cultural differences


Obedience: Dispositional Explanations- The Authoritarian Personality-Characteristics

People with the authoritarian personality obey authority and show extreme respect for it. They care about a persons social status, and show conventional attitudes towards sex, race and society. They try to enforce traditional values and have inflexible opinions. Everything in right or wrong, there is no grey area


Obedience: Dispositional Explanations- The Authoritarian Personality-Origins

They had an extremely strict and harsh upbringing, as their parents demanded absolute loyalty, had very high standards and experienced conditional love. This creates resentment that the child cannot express against their parents as they are scared of the repercussions. These fears are displaces on people they see as lower than them or inferior


Obedience: Dispositional Explanations- The Authoritarian Personality-Evaluation

+Research support-Elms study
-Limited Explanation-There is an alternative theory-Social identity theory
-Right wing bias-Cannot account for obedience across the whole political spectrum


Resistance to Social Influence-Social Support-Conformity

The pressure to conform can be reduced if other people are not conforming. The non-conforming individual is seen as a model to others


Resistance to Social Influence-Social Support-Obedience

The pressure to obey can be reduced if other people are not obeying


Resistance to Social Influence-Social Support-Evaluation

+Both resistance to obedience and conformity have research to support it- Gamson, Allen and Levine


Resistance to Social Influence-Locus of Control

Internals see things that happen to them are controlled by themselves. External see things happen without their own control


Resistance to Social Influence-Locus of Control-Resistance to social influence

Internals are more resistance to social influence, because they tend to be more confident and have less need for social approval


Resistance to Social Influence-Locus of Control-Evaluation

+Research support-Holland
-Contradictory Research-Twenge et al


Minority Influence-Consistency

The consistency of the minorities views increases the amount of interest from other people. This might be from agreement from other member from the minority (Synchronic Consistency). This consistency makes other people start to rethink their own views


Minority Influence-Commitment

Occasionally, minority member engage in activities that can be at some risk to them. These risky activities help show how committed they are to the cause. Majority group members will now pay attention. This is called the Augmentation Principle


Minority Influence-Flexibility

Being extremely consistent but repeating the same thing and doing the same behaviours over and over again can be seen as inflexible, and will not result in anyone changing their viewpoint. Members of the minority should adapt their point of view and accept reasonable and valid counter arguments


Minority Influence-The Process of Change

If you hear something new, you think about it. This deeper processing is important to converting to a different viewpoint. Over time, increasing numbers of people converting to the minority view means that the rate of conversion is high. This is called the snowball effect. This change could cause actual change to occur


Minority Influence-Evaluation

+Research Support-Moscovici study and Wood's Study
+Research support for depth of thought-Martin
-Artificial stimulus and tasks used in studies


Social Change-Role of Minority Influence-The process of Social Change

1-Drawing attention though proof
2-Consistency of message
3-Deeper Processing of the issue
4-The augmentation Principal-the attributional tendency to assign greater influence to a particular cause or rationale of behaviour if there are other factors present that normally would produce a different outcome.
5-The snowball effect
6-Social Cryptomnesia-people have a memory that change occurred


Social Change-Lessons from conformity research

NSI can lead to social change by drawing attention to what the majority is doing


Social Change-Lessons from obedience research

Disobedient role models decreases obedience. Gradual commitment is how obedience can lead to a social change


Social Change-Evaluation

+Research Support-Nolan et al's study
-Minority influence is only indirectly effective
-Doubts over the role of deeper processing