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Flashcards in Memory Studies Deck (45)
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He gave a different list of words to 4 group to remember;
Group 1- Acoustically Similar
Group 2- Acoustically Dissimilar
Group 3- Semantically Similar
Group 4- Semantically Dissimilar



Participants were shown the original words and were asked to recall them in the correct order. They did this immediately after hearing them. Participants tended to do worse with acoustically similar words



-Artificial Stimuli-Findings have limited application



The researcher gave the participant a set of digits and they had to recall them in the right order



The mean digit span across all partcipants was 9.3 items



-Limited Validity-results may have been effected by confounding variables
+Results of this study has been confirmed by other research



Miller noted that things come in sevens. He suggested that the capacity of the STM is 7



He noted that people can recall 5 things (due to chunking)



-Miller may have overestimated the capacity of the STM. Future research has suggested that the capacity of the STM is 4. This suggest that the lower bond (5) is more accurate that Miller's estimate


Duration-Peterson and Peterson-Method

24 undergraduate students took part in 8 trials (tests). During each trial, the student was given a trigram to remember and was also given a 3 digit number. The student was then asked to count backwards from their 3 digit number until told to stop. On each trial, they were told to stop after a different length of time


Duration-Peterson and Peterson-Results

As the amount of time the participants had to count for increased, the % of correct remembrance of their trigram decreased


Duration-Peterson and Peterson-Evaluation

-Artificial Stimuli, lacks external validity
+However, we do remember meaningless numbers in our daily life, so it isn't that irrelevant



392 participants from Ohio aged between 17 and 74 were tested. Their high school yearbooks were obtained. Recall was tested in various ways including:
-photo recognition test of 50 photos, some from their yearbook
-free recall test where they recalled all the names of their graduating class



Participants who were tested within 15 years of graduation were about 90% accurate in photo recognition. After 48 years, this figure decline to 70%. After 15 years, free recall was about 60% accurate, dropping to 30% after 48 years



+High External Validity- real life memories were used
-Confounding Variables are not controls- Participants may have looked at their yearbook and rehearsed this for many years


More than one type of STM-Shallace and Warrington-Method

They did a case study of a patient with amnesia known as KF.


More than one type of STM-Shallace and Warrington-Results

They found that KF's STM for digits was very poor when they were read out loud to him. His recall was much better when he read the digits himself. This could be because amnesia suffers might have another STM store for non-verbal sounds, according to further research


Working Memory Model-Shallace and Warrington-Method

Case study of KF


Working Memory Model-Shallace and Warrington-Results

KF had a poor STM ability for verbal information but could process visual information presented visually. Suggests that only his Phonological Loop was damaged-supports the idea of separate visual and audio stores


Dual Task Performance-Baddeley-Method

The participants had to do two different tasks.
1. Two Visual tasks at the same time
2. A Visual and a Verbal task at the same time


Dual Task Performance-Baddeley-Results

The participants found it difficult to do 2 visual tasks at the same time. This is because the tasks both use the same slave system, so there is some competition


Interference-McGeoch and McDonald-Method

Participants had to learn a list of 10 words until they could recall them with 100% accuracy. They then learned a different list. There were 6 groups who had to learn a different type of list
1-Synonyms-same meaning as original
2-Antonyms-opposite meanings as original
3-Words unrelated to original ones
4-Nonsense syllables
5-Three-digit numbers
6-No new list-they rested


Interference-McGeoch and McDonald-Results

When the participants recalled the first list, their performance depended on the nature of the second list. The most similar material produced the worst recall.


Interference-Baddeley and Hitch-Method

They asked rugby players to try to remember and recall the names of the teams they had played, week by week. Because most of the players had missed games, their "last game" may had been 2 or 3 weeks ago


Interference-Baddeley and Hitch-Results

Accurate recall did not depend on how long ago the game was played. More important was the number of games that they played in the meantime. A players recall of a team from 3 weeks ago was better if they played no games since then


Interference-Baddeley and Hitch-Evaluation

+Real Life Application


Interference-McGeoch and McDonald-Evaluation

+ Lab Study-Valid explanation


Context-Dependent Forgetting-Godden and Baddely-Method

Deep sea divers learnt a list of words either underwater or on land. They were then asked to recall these words underwater or on land. There were 4 conditions:
1-Learnt on land- Recall on Land
2-Learnt on land-Recall underwater
3-Learnt underwater-Recall on land
4-Learnt underwater-Recall underwater


Context-Dependent Forgetting-Godden and Baddely-Results

Accurate recall was 40% lower in the non-matching conditions. The external cues were not available, and so this led to retrieval failure


State-Dependent-Forgetting-Carter and Cassaday-Method

They gave anti-histamine drugs to their partcipants. The drugs has a mild sedactive effect, which made them drowsy. This creates a different physiological state. The partcipants had to learn a list of words, and then recall them. There were 4 condtions:
1-Learn on drug-Recall on drug
2-Learn on Drug-Recall when not
3-Learn when not on drug-Recall on drug
4-Learn when not on drug-Recall when not