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Flashcards in Addiction Key Terms Deck (22)
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1

Addiction

A disorder in which an individual takes a substance or engages in a behaviour that is pleasurable but eventually becomes compulsive with harmful consequences

2

Physical Dependence

A state of the body due to habitual drug use and which results un a withdrawal syndrome when use of the drug is reduced or stopped

3

Psychological Dependence

A compulsion to continue taking a drug because the use of it is rewarding

4

Tolerance

A reduction or response to a drug, so that the addicted individual needs more to get the same effect

5

Withdrawal Syndrome

A set of symptoms that develop when the addicted person abstains from or reduces their drug use

6

Genetic Vulnerability

Any inherited predisposition that increases the risk of a disorder or condition

7

Risk Factors

Any internal or external influence that increases the likelihood someone will start using drugs or engage in addictive behaviours

8

Stress

A physiological and psychological state of arousal that arises when we believe we do not have the ability to cope with a perceived stressor

9

Personality

Patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving that differs between individuals. These are relatively consistent from one situation to another, and over time

10

Family Influences

The effects that other family members have on our thoughts, feeling and behaviours over the course of development

11

Peers

People who share our interests and are of similar age, social status and background to ourselves. Peers become more influential in adolescence, when we spend more time with them and less with family

12

Neurochemistry

Relating to chemicals in the brain that regulate psychological functioning

13

Dopamine

A neurotransmitter that generally has an excitatory effect and is associated with the sensation of pleasure.

14

Cue Reactivity

Cravings and arousal can be trigger when addicts encounter cues related to the pleasurable effects of their addiction

15

Partial Reinforcement

When a behaviour is reinforced only some of the time it occurs (for example: every ten times or at intervals)

16

Variable Reinforcement

A type of partial reinforcement in which a behaviour is reinforced after an unpredictable period of time of number of responses

17

Cognitive Bias

A distortion of attention,memory and thinking. It occurs because of how we process information about the world,especially if it is done quickly.

18

Behavioural Interventions

Any treatment based on behaviourist principles of learning, such as classical and operant conditioning

19

Aversion Therapy

A behaviour treatment based on classical conditioning. A maladaptive behaviour is paired with an unpleasant stimulus. Eventually, the behaviour is associated with the stimulus and the behaviour decreases

20

Covert Sensitisation

A form of aversion therapy based on classical conditioning. Instead of experiencing an unpleasant stimulus, the patient imagines how it would feel

21

Theory of Planned Behaviour

Changes in behaviour can be predicted from our intension to change, which in turn is the outcome of personal attitudes towards the behaviour in question, our beliefs about what other think and our perceived ability to control our behaviour

22

Prochaska's Six Stage Model

A model that explains the stages people go through to change their behaviour. It identifies six stages of change from not considering it at all to making permanent changes. The stages are not necessarily followed in a linear order