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Flashcards in Addiction Theories Deck (66)
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What is addiction-Physical Dependence

Physical dependence to a drug occurs when the addict experiences withdrawal symptoms when they abstain from it


What is addiction-Psychological Dependence

This occurs when the addict has a compulsion to take the drug, which is followed by a reward (feeling good). This leads to them continuing to take the drug to experience these feelings


What is addiction-Tolerance

Due to the related exposure to the drug, the addict needs to take more to experience the same effects as before


What is addiction-Withdrawal Symptoms

These symptoms occur when the addict, who is physically dependent to the drug, abstains from taking the drug. To avoid these symptoms, is the goal for addicts and the reason why addictions continue. AKA Withdrawal Syndrome


Risk Factors in the development of addiction-Genetic Vulnerability

Some people can inherit a vulnerability to developing a drug addiction


Risk Factors in the development of addiction-Genetic Vulnerability-Mechanism

There are two plausible direct genetic mechanisms involved in addiction:
-Dopamine receptors-Low amounts are thought to be involved in addition
-Metabolize-The enzyme CYP 2A6 is involved in metabolism. Those with this enzyme are at a greater risk of nicotine addiction


Risk Factors in the development of addiction-Genetic Vulnerability-Evaluation

+Research Support-Kendler study
+Indirect Effects-Causes some behaviours that lead to an increase in risk for addiction development
-Biologically Reductionist-Ignores other factors except biology


Risk Factors in the development of addiction-Stress

Increased risk of developing addiction is linked with periods of chronic long lasting stress and traumatic life events in childhood. These traumatic events have damaging effects on the brain during the sensitive period, which leads to a vulnerability to addiction during adolescence


Risk Factors in the development of addiction-Personality

There is no addictive personality. The impulsiveness found is antisocial personality disorder (APD) increases the risk of addiction, as APD and addiction share a common genetic element


Risk Factors in the development of addiction-Family Influences

An persons perspective of their family's views on drugs may increase or decrease the likelihood of them become addicted. If their persons do not care what their child is doing, the child is more likely to start becoming addicted. Also, if the parent themselves are addicts, the child is exposed to the substance, and are more-likely to become addicted


Risk Factors in the development of addiction-Peers

Peers are a very important factor for older children and for peers who have not used drugs themselves. The attitudes of the peers are not influential in the development of drug taking. The formation of a group that favours rule breaking is influential, and drug taking comes under this category


Risk Factors in the development of addiction-Peers Elements that influence Peers

According to O'Connell, these elements are:
-The at risk adolescents norms and attitudes are influenced by peers who are addicts
-The peers provide more experiences for the at risk individual to take the addicted stimuli
-The individual over estimates how much the peers are using/drinking, which means that they use more to keep up with the perceived norm


Risk Factors in the development of addiction-Evaluation

+Interaction between factors- These factors combine together to create the vulnerability of addiction- There is no one main risk factor
-Cause and Effect-A lot of research is correlation, addiction might be caused by stress, but stress can also be caused by addiction- Not clear on what causes what
-Proximate and Ultimate Risk Factors-Some of the risk factors may be caused by genetics-not individual things


Explanations for Nicotine Addiction-Brain Neurochemistry-Desensitization Hypothesis

Nicotine receptors (nAChR) in the brain are briefly stimulated by nicotine, but then immediately shut down. This stimulates the nucleus accumbens to trigger a release of dopamine, which has pleasurable effects


Explanations for Nicotine Addiction-Brain Neurochemistry-Nicotine Regulation Model

Going without nicotine allows the Nicotine receptors (nAChR) to become sensitive again. This creates small withdrawal symptoms in the smoker, many them want to smoke to reduce the symptoms. This can explain why smokers think that their first cigarette of the day is the best


Explanations for Nicotine Addiction-Brain Neurochemistry-Evaluation

+Research Support-McEvoy study
+Real Life Applications- Can be used to develop treatments for addiction and other symptoms that have a high co-morbidity with nicotine use eg: Depression
-Limited Explanation-Research shows that there are other neurochemical involved like GABA
-Biologically Reductionist-Ignores psychological and environmental factors


Explanations for Nicotine Addiction-Learning Theory-Operant Conditioning-Positive Reinforcement

Nicotine is a powerful reinforce of smoking because of its pleasurable effects on the brain's dopamine system


Explanations for Nicotine Addiction-Learning Theory-Operant Conditioning-Negative Reinforcement

People continue to smoke in order to avoid the unpleasant withdrawal effects of stopping. These negatively reinforce the smoking behaviour


Explanations for Nicotine Addiction-Learning Theory-Classical Conditioning-Cue Reactivity

Positive cues (people, places, occasions) become associated with the pleasurable effects of nicotine. These cues become secondary reinforcers of the smoking behaviour


Explanations for Nicotine Addiction-Learning Theory-Evaluation

+Support from animal studies-Levin study
+Support for cue reactivity- Carter and Tiffany Study
+Has Real Life Applications-Used in Aversion Therapy
-Limited Explanation- Other causes of smoking behaviour- Why do some adolescence who smoke daily do not experience withdrawal symptoms?


Explanations for Gambling Addiction-Learning Theory-Vicarious Reinforcement

Observing other people, and the media, being rewarded for gambling behaviour may trigger the desire for similar reinforcement


Explanations for Gambling Addiction-Learning Theory-Positive and Negative Reinforcement

Positive reinforcement is provided by the "buzz" of a casino. Negative reinforcement is provided by gambling providing an escape from the stresses of daily life. Both reinforce the gambling behaviour


Explanations for Gambling Addiction-Learning Theory-Continuous Reinforcement

The behaviour quickly stops when the rewards end


Explanations for Gambling Addiction-Learning Theory-Partial Reinforcement

Gambling behaviour still occurs even when it is not being rewarded as the gamblers are not sure when the bets will pay off


Explanations for Gambling Addiction-Learning Theory-Partial Reinforcement-Variable Reinforcement

A form of partial reinforcement where the rewards are given out in a random order. This means that the gambler is motivated to keep gambling even when the rewards are not there, as the next spin could mean a big win


Explanations for Gambling Addiction-Learning Theory-Cue Reactivity

Cues associated with gambling, like the national lottery or a betting shop, act as secondary reinforcers, which can trigger arousal and a craving to gamble


Explanations for Gambling Addiction-Learning Theory-Evaluation

+Research Support-Dickerson study
-Lack of explanatory power-Theory cannot explain gambling addiction for games of skill (eg Poker), it can only explain for games of chance(eg Slot Machines)
-Individual Differences-Different levels of motivation to gambler, different responses to stimuli
+Explains why people cannot stop gambling


Explanations for Gambling Addiction-Cognitive Theory-Expectancy Bias

Gambling addiction becomes more likely when the gamblers expect the benefits of this behaviour to outweigh the costs


Explanations for Gambling Addiction-Cognitive Theory-Cognitive Biases

Gambling addiction develops and maintains because the addict pays more attention to gambling related information and selectively remembers it


Explanations for Gambling Addiction-Cognitive Theory-Cognitive Biases-Skill and Judgement

Gamblers have an illusion of control which means that they overestimate their ability to influence a random event