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Flashcards in Schizophrenia Studies Deck (29)
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1

Reliability of Schizophrenia diagnosis-Cheniaux-Method

Two psychologists had to independently diagnose 100 patients using both DSM and ICD criteria.

2

Reliability of Schizophrenia diagnosis-Cheniaux-Results

Inter-rater reliability was poor. One psychologist diagnosed 26 as schizophrenics according to DSM and 44 according to ICD. The other psychologist diagnosed 13 according to DSM and 24 according to ICD

3

Co-Morbidity-Buckley-Results

Around half of people diagnosed as schizophrenics also have a diagnosis of depression or substance abuse. PTSD occurred in 29% of cases and OCD in 23%

4

Gender Bias-Longenecker-Results

She concluded at since the 1980's, men have been diagnosed with schizophrenia rather more than women

5

Genetic Risk of Schizophrenia-Gottesman-Results

Identical twins has a 48% risk of developing schizophrenia, the figure decreases as the genetic similarity decreases

6

Candidate Genes-Ripke-Method

A huge study was carried out combining all previous data from genome-wide studies of schizophrenia. The genetic make-up of 37000 patients was compared to that of 113000 controls

7

Candidate Genes-Ripke-Results

108 separate genetic variations was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. The majority of these were associated with coding of neurotransmitters, including dopamine

8

Neural Correlates of Negative Symptoms- Juckel-Method

He measured the level of activity in the ventral striatum in schizophrenics and compared that to the ventral striatum of a non schizophrenic control group

9

Neural Correlates of Negative Symptoms- Juckel-Results

He found lower levels of activity in the schizophrenic's ventral striatum. He also observed a negative correlation between activity levels in the ventral striatum and the severity of the negative symptoms.

10

Neural Correlates of Positive Symptoms-Allen-Method

He scanned the brains of patients experiencing auditory hallucinations and compared them to a control group, whist they identified pre-recorded speech as their own or someone else's

11

Neural Correlates of Positive Symptoms-Allen-Results

He found lower activation levels in the superior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus in the hallucination group. They also made more errors that the control group

12

Supports Family Dysfunction-Read-Method

He reviewed 46 studies of child abuse and schizophrenia

13

Supports Family Dysfunction-Read-Results

He found that 69% of adult women in-patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia had an history of psychical abuse, sexual abuse or both in childhood. For men, the figure was 59%.

14

Supports Family Dysfunction-Berry-Results

Adults with insecure attachments to their primary carer are more likely to have schizophrenia

15

Dysfunctional Information Processing-Stirling-Method

He compared 30 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia with 18 non-patient controls on a range of cognitive tasks including the stroop test.

16

Dysfunctional Information Processing-Stirling-Results

Patients took twice as long to name the colour of the word than the control patients

17

Effectiveness of Drug Therapy-Thornley-Method

He reviewed studies comparing the effects of Chloromazine to control conditions in which patients received a placebo, so they had the same experience except for the presence of Chloromazine

18

Effectiveness of Drug Therapy-Thornley-Results

Data from 13 trials with a total of 1121 participants showed that Chloromazine was associated with better overall functioning and reduced symptom severity. Data from three trials with a total of 512 participants showed that the relapse rate was lower when Chloromazine was present

19

Benefits of Atypical Antipsychotics-Meltzer-Results

He concluded that Clozapine us more effective than typical and other atypical antipsychotics. It is effective in 30%-50% of treatment resistant cases where typical antipsychotics has failed

20

Evidence for Effective of CBT-Jauhar-Method

He reviewed 34 studies of CBT for schizophrenia

21

Evidence for Effective of CBT-Jauhar-Results

CBT has a significant but small effect on both positive and negative symptoms

22

Evidence for Effective of CBT-Pharoah- Method

The evidence for the effectiveness of family therapy for families of schizophrenia sufferers was reviewed

23

Evidence for Effective of CBT-Pharoah-Results

They concluded that there is moderate evidence to show that family therapy reduces hospital readmission and it improves the quality of life for the patient and their family. However, the results were inconstant and weak

24

Token Economy-McMonagle and Sultana-Results

They found only three studies were random allocation was used, with only one of these showed an improvement in the patients symptoms. None had useful information about behaviour change

25

Evidence for the role of Vulnerability and Triggers-Tienari-Method

He investigated the combination of genetic vulnerability and parenting style. Children adopted from 19,000 Finnish mothers with schizophrenia between 1960 and 1979 were followed up. Their adoptive parents were assessed for parenting style, and the rates of schizophrenia was compared to those in a control group of adoptees with no genetic risk

26

Evidence for the role of Vulnerability and Triggers-Tienari-Results

A parenting style with high levels of criticism and conflict with low levels of empathy was implicated in the development of schizophrenia, but only for those who had the genetic vulnerability

27

The oversimplified diathesis stress model-Houston-Result

Childhood sexual trauma was a vulnerability factor, while cannabis use was the trigger

28

Supports the effectiveness of combination of treatment- Tarrier-Method

315 patients were randomly allocated to a medication +CBT group, medication + supportive counselling group or a control group

29

Supports the effectiveness of combination of treatment- Tarrier-Results

Patients in the two combination groups showed lower symptom levels than those in the medication only control group. However, there was no change in hospital readmission rate