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Caregiver-Infant Interactions-Interactions

From an early age, babies have frequent and important interactions with their care giver


Caregiver-Infant Interactions-Reciprocity

The mothers respond to the babies "alert phrases" which signal that they are ready for interaction. From 3 months, these interactions become more frequent , and the parent and baby pay close attention to each other's facial expressions. Reciprocity occurs when each persons responds to the other, and elicits a response from them. In simple terms, one is responding to the others moves and expressions


Caregiver-Infant Interactions-Interactional Synchrony

This is when the actions of the mother and baby become synchronised. This means they are doing the same action at the same time


Caregiver-Infant Interactions-Evaluation

+Has Research Support-Isabella and Meltzoff and Moore's studies for Interactional Synchrony
-It is hard to know what is happening when observing infants-Is imitation deliberate?
-Studies do not tell us the purpose of Synchrony and Reciprocity
+Studies are very controlled-details of observations are in-depth- increases validity


Attachment Figures-Parent-Infant Attachment

This attachment was traditionally between mother and infant. But other attachments (secondary attachments), normally to the father, are important too


Attachment Figures-The Role of The Father

Grossmann's research found that the quality of the fathers play is important to attachment. The father is seen as a play figure, while the mother is the caring figure


Attachment Figures-Fathers as Primary Caregivers

According to research, the Father acts and takes the responsibility as the mother primary caregiver. This suggests that the gender of the parent does not attach attachment


Attachment Figures-Evalaution

-Inconstant Finding on Fathers- Some fathers are secondary caregivers, overs are Primary caregivers- asks the question "what is the role of the father"
-If Fathers has a distinct role, why are children without fathers not different- Fathers secondary role is not important


Schaffer' s stages of Attachment-Asocial Stage

The baby shows similar behaviour towards objects and humans are similar. They show preference to familiar humans who comfort them


Schaffer' s stages of Attachment-Indiscriminate Attachment

From 2-7 months, they show a preference towards humans than objects. They accept cuddles from any human and they don't show stranger and separation anxiety


Schaffer' s stages of Attachment-Specific Attachment

From around 7 months, they start to show anxiety towards strangers and experience separation anxiety when separated from the biological mother (normally). This person is their primary attachment figure


Schaffer' s stages of Attachment-Multiple Attachments

At this stage, they start to build an attachment to adults who they spend time with. These people are known as secondary attachment


Schaffer' s stages of Attachment-Evaluation

-Problems with asocial stage-Fully based on observations of babies
-Conflicting evidence on multiple attachments-Some research says that multiple attachments are formed first
-Difficult to measure multiple attachments-Difficult to distinguish between babies behaviours


Harlow' s materially deprived monkeys as adults

The monkeys who were reared with the iron maiden grew up dysfunction, and those reared with the soft cloth monkey did not develop normally. These monkeys were more aggressive, and bred less than others. As mothers, these monkeys neglected their young and others attached their children


Explanations of Attachment-Learning Theory-Classical Conditioning

Food creates a feeling of pleasure in the baby. Food is US, Pleasure is UR. The mother is the NS. When the mother feeds the baby, it feels pleasure. Over time, this association continues unfilled the mother (now the CS) creates a feeling of pleasure (now the CR)


Explanations of Attachment-Learning Theory-Operant Conditioning

Crying behaviour is positively reinforced as it can get attention from the mother, which can lead to feeding. This positively reinforces crying behaviour for the baby, but negatively reinforces the behaviour for the mother,as they are stepping in to prevent the baby crying


Explanations of Attachment-Learning Theory-Attachment as a Secondary Drive

Hunger is the primary drive. Attachment is a learned association between parent and child due to the fulfilment of the primary drive (food)


Explanations of Attachment-Learning Theory-Evaluation

+Provides counter evidence from animal research-Lorenz and Harlow showed that feeding is not important
+Uses Human research-Can be generalized
-Ignores other factors-like interacional synchrony


Explanations of Attachment-Bowlby' s Theory-Monotropic

This theory is monotropic as it says that one particular attachment is different in quality and purpose than others. Bowlby called this person who the baby has an attachment with the "mother" but this person does not need to be the mother. The "mother" is now called the primary attachment figure


Explanations of Attachment-Bowlby' s Theory-Social Relasers and the Critical Period

Babies are born with a inmate cuteness, which Bowlby called social releases,as they activate the adult attachment system, and an attachment is created. Bowlby said that this cuteness only lasts for the first 2 years of their life. This is known as the critical period, and if an attachment is not formed in this period,the child will struggle to form attachments later on


Explanations of Attachment-Bowlby' s Theory-Internal Working Models

An internal working model is a mental representation of the primary attachment relationship. This acts as a template for future relationships. For example, if a child has an attachment based on love and care, the child will base their relationships on love and care


Explanations of Attachment-Bowlby' s Theory-Evaluation

-Mixed Evidence for Monotropy-Schaffer and Emerson and Suess's studies
+Support for Social Relasers-Brazleton study
+Support for Internal Working Models-Bailey study
-Monotropy is a sensitive idea-Sets up to blame the child's mother


Cultural Variations in Attachment-Evaluation

+ Research uses large samples-Increases internal validity
-Samples trend to be Unrepresentative of culture-Comparing different cultures have little meaning due to different makeup of samples
-Western Bias-Strange situation is used to measure attachment to the western standard-Asian cultures would produce strange results-Imposed etic


Theory of Maternal Deprivation-Separation vs Deprivation

Separation is when the child is not in the presence of the primary attachment figure. This turns to deprivation when it occurs constantly and the child is deprived of a element of care


Theory of Maternal Deprivation-The Critical Period

Bowlby saw the first 30 months of the child's life as crucial for psychological development. If the child is deprived of their primary attachment figure during this period, psychological damage will occur


Theory of Maternal Deprivation-Effects on Development-Intellectual Development

If a child is maternal deprived during the critical period, the child will have a delay in intellectual development, characterized by a low IQ


Theory of Maternal Deprivation-Effects on Development-Emotional Development

If a child is deprived of their primary attachment figure during the critical period, they will develop a trait of affectionless psychopathy. This is characterized by a lack of guilt or strong emotions, which will prevent the child from forming normal relationships


Theory of Maternal Deprivation-Evaluation

-Poor Evidence-44 Thieves study is not good evidence
-Counter Evidence-Lewis study-Affects validity of theory
-Critical Period is more sensitive-Damage is not 100% going to happen if maternal deprivation occurs-Koluchova study


Effects of Institutionalisation-Disinhibited Attachment

Those with this type of attachment are friendly to those who they know and strangers


Effects of Institutionalisation-Mental Retardation

After the Romanian Orphans arrived in Britain, many showed signs of retardation (very low IQ). Those adopted before they were 6 months old caught up with the British children by 4 years old