Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (22)
What is attribution theory
It explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behavior or that of others.
What is person perception
Making judgments about others
What is attribution
The process through which individuals attempt to determine the causes of others behavior
What are 2 types of causes
Internal (personality, motives)
External (other people, situation)
What is distinctiveness
Shows different behavior in different situations
What is consensus
Response is the same as others to same situation
What is consistency
Responds in the same way over time
What is kelley's theory of causal attribution
The attribution process involves reasoning backward from the observation of an event or behavior to a judgment about its cause. Unlike a prediction, the attribution process attempts to provide an explanation for an event that has already occurred.
What is fundamental attribution error
The tendency to attribute others actions to internal causes while largely ignoring external factors that also may have influenced their behavior.
What is self-serving bias
The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
What is halo effect
A general impression about an individual is based on a single positive characteristics.
What is contrast effect
Evaluation of a person's characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.
What is projection
Individuals can project their fear, hatred, anxiety onto others whom they view as less powerful.
What is stereotyping
Judging someone on the basis of the group to which he/she belongs.
What are rater errors
It defines rater errors as being imperfect judgment of others.
What is leniency in rater error
The tendency to perceive the job performance of ratees as especially good.
What is harshness in rater error
The tendency to perceive the job performance of ratees as especially ineffective.
What is central tendency
The tendency to assign most ratees to middle-range job performance categories.
What is similar-to-me effect
A rater gives more favorable evaluation to people who are similar to the rater in terms of background or attitudes.
What is misperception
Misperception is the cognitive process by which an individual selects and organizes, but misinterprets environmental stimuli.
What are four styles of decision making