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Flashcards in Mod 8 Deck (42)
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1

topics to dream about:
… and sleep
theories of why …
sleep … and sleep …
… and … we dream

biological rhythms; we need sleep; deprivation; disorders; what; why

2

when sleeping, are we fully … and "dead to the world?? Or is the window to consciousness open?
Consider that: we move around, but how do we stop ourselves from falling out of bed? we sometimes incorporate … into our dreams. some noises (our own baby's cry) wake us more … than others

unconscious; real-world noises; easily

3

How do we learn about sleep and dreams?
we can monitor … and … during sleep
we can expose the sleeping person to … and …, and then examine the effects on the brain (waves) and mind (memory)
we can wake people and see which … state goes with which …/… state

EEG/brain waves; muscle movements; noise; words; mental; brain; body

4

sleep and biological rhythms:
… biological "clock"
... sleep cycle

24 hour; 90 minute

5

(daily rhythms and sleep) the circadian ("about a day") rhythm refers to the body's … cycle, roughly matched to the day/night cycle of … and …

natural 24-hr; light; dark

6

(daily rhythms and sleep) over the 24 hr cycle, the following factors vary, rising and falling over the course of the day and night:

…/…
...

body temperature; arousal; energy; mental sharpness

7

(daily rhythms and sleep) daily rhythms vary from person to person and with age. General peaks in alertness
evening peak- … year old "owls"
morning peak: … year old "larks"

20; 50

8

sleep stages and sleep cycles. what is measured?
... and … movements
... (…)
… (…)

left and right eye; EMG; muscle tension; EEG; brain waves

9

sleep stages refer to distinct patterns of … and … that are associated with different types of … and …

brain waves; muscle activity; consciousness; sleep

10

sleep cycles refer to the patterns of … through all the sleep stages over the night. We "cycle" through all the sleep stages in about … on average

sleep stages; 90 minutes

11

.... waves are the relatively slow brain waves of a …, awake state

alpha; relaxed

12

falling asleep:
yawning creates a brief boost in … as your brain metabolism is …
your breathing …
brain waves become … and ….
you may have … as you fall asleep
your brain waves change from … waves to …

alertness; slowing down; slows down; slower; irregular; hallucinations; alpha; NREM-1

13

non-rem sleep stages: getting deeper into sleep but not … yet
there's NREM-1, NREM-2, and NREM-3

dreaming

14

Eugene Aserinsky's discovery (1953): dreams occurred during periods of … and … [… sleep]

wild brain activity; rapid eye movements; REM

15

during REM:
... rises and … becomes rapid

heart rate; breathing

16

during REM:
"..." occurs when the brainstem blocks the motor cortex's messages and the muscles … This is sometimes known as "..."; the brain is … but the body is …

sleep paralysis; don't move; paradoxical sleep; active; immobile

17

during REM:
genitals are … (not caused by dream content) and stay this way after REM is over

aroused

18

the length of REM sleep … the longer you remain asleep. With age, there are more … and less …

increases; awakenings; deep sleep

19

the amount and pattern of sleep is affected by …, …, …, and …

biology; age; culture; individual variation

20

age: in general, newborns need .. hrs of sleep, while adults need … hrs or less

16; 8

21

individual (genetic) variation: some people function best with … hrs of sleep, others with … hrs or more

6; 9

22

culture: north americans sleep … than others, and less than they used to, perhaps bc of the use of light bulbs

less

23

.. and the .. regulate sleep

light; brain

24

the circadian rhythm is hard to … this rhythm can be affected by light, which suppresses the relaxing hormone …

shift; melatonin

25

sleep … our ancestors from predators
sleep … and .. the brain and body
sleep builds and strengthens …
sleep facilitates creative …
sleep is the time when … are active

protected; restores; repairs; memories; problem solving; growth hormones

26

research shows that inadequate sleep can make you more likely to:
lose …
gain …
get …
be …
feel …

brainpower; weight; sick; irritable; old

27

sleep loss results in more …, probably caused by impaired attention and slower reaction time

accidents

28

(sleep disorders) insomnia: persistent inability to … or …

fall asleep; stay asleep

29

(sleep disorders) narcolepsy ("numb seizure"): …, even a collapse into …, at inopportune times

sleep attacks; REM/paralyzed sleep

30

(sleep disorders) sleep apnea ("with no breath"): repeated awakening after …; time in bed is not restorative sleep

breathing stops