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Flashcards in mod 23 Deck (52)
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1

why do we need to have memory?
to retain useful …, …, and …
to recognize familiar … and …
to build our capacity to use …
to enjoy, share, and sustain …

skills; knowledge; expertise; people; places; language; culture;

2

why do we need to have memory cont.?
to build a sense of … that endures: what do I believe, value, remember, and understand?
to go beyond … in learning from experience, including lessons from one's past and from the experiences of others

self; conditioning

3

memory: the persistence of … over time, through the … and … of information and skills

learning; storage; retrieval

4

three behaviors show that memory is functioning: …, … and ...

recall; recognition; relearning

5

recall is analogous to … you retrieve information … and ….

"fill-in-the-blanks" previously learned; unconsciously stored

6

recognition is a form of "..." you identify which stimuli match your …

multiple choice; stored info

7

relearning is a measure of how much .. it takes you to learn information you had studied before, even if you don't recall having seen the information before

less work

8

schematic by which memory works: … --> … --> …

encoding; storage; retrieval

9

encoding: the information gets into our brains in a way that allows it to be

stored

10

storage: the information is held in a way that allows it to later be

retrieved

11

retrieval: … and … the information, producing it in a form similar to what was …

reactivating; recalling; encoded

12

(models of memory formation)
Atkinson-Shiffrin model:
1. stimuli are recorded by our … and held briefly in …
2. some of this information is processed into … and encoded through …
3. information then moves into … where it can be retrieved later

senses; sensory memory; short-term memory; rehearsal; long-term memory

13

(models of memory formation) modifying the Atkinson-Shiffrin model:
more goes on in short-term memory besides rehearsal; this is now called …
some information seems to go straight from sensory experience into …; this is called ...

working memory; long-term memory; automatic processing

14

some of the stimuli we encounter are picked up by our senses and processed by the sensory organs. this generates information which enters …
before this information vanishes from sensory memory, we select details to pay attention to, and send this information into … for … and other processing

sensory memory; working memory; rehearsal

15

short term memory holds information not just to rehearse it, but to … it
short-term memory integrates information from … with new information coming in from ..

process; long-term memory; sensory memory

16

explicit/declarative memories: facts an experiences that we can consciously … and …

know; recall

17

our minds aquire explicit memories through …: studying, rehearsing, thinking, processing, and then storing info in long-term memory

effortful processing

18

some memories are formed without going through all the Atkinson-Shiffrin stages. these are … memories, the ones we are not fully aware of and thus don't "declare"/talk about

implicit/procedural memories

19

procedural/implicit memories are typically formed through … implicit memories are formed without our … that we are building a memory, and without … or other processing in working memory (such as knowing how to walk/balance)

automatic processing; awareness; rehearsal

20

automatic processing: some experiences go directly to

long-term implicit memory

21

some experiences are processed automatically into implicit memory, without any effortful/working memory processing:
… memory, such as knowing how to ride a bike, and well-practiced knowledge such as word meanings
…, such as a smell that triggers throughs of a fav place
info about …, such as being able to picture where things are after walking through a room
info about .., such as retracing a sequence of events if you lost something
info about .., such as thinking "I just noticed that this is the third texting driver I've passed today"

procedural; conditioned associations; space; time; frequency

22

first phase of encoding and processing: …- the immediate, very brief recording of … before it is processed into … or .. memory

sensory memory; sensory information; short-term; long-term

23

we very briefly capture a …, analogous to an echo or an image, of all the sensations we take in

sensory memory

24

sensory memory consists of about a … to … second echo, or a 1/20th of a second image

3;4

25

evidence of auditory sensory memory, called … memory, can occur after someone says, "what did I just say" Even if you weren't paying attention, you can retrieve about the last eight words from echoic memory

echoic

26

evidence of visual sensory (..) memory: George sperling's experiments

iconic

27

George sperling exposed people to a 1/20th of a second view of a grid of letters, followed by a … which old them which row of letters to pull from iconic memory and recall. without the tone, people recalled about … percent of the letters; with the tone, recall for any of the rows was typically … percent

tone; 50; 100

28

George miller proposed that we can hold … information bits. more recent research suggests that the avg person, free from distraction can hold about: … digits, … letters, or … words

7 +/- 2; 7; 6; 5

29

working memory, which uses …, …, …, …, and other processing, has greater capacity than .. memory. the capacity of working memory varies; some people have better …

rehearsal; focus; analysis; linking; short-term memory; concentration

30

Lloyd Peterson and Margaret Peterson wanted to know duration of short-term memory. their experiment:
1. people were given triplets of …
2. to prevent …, the subjects had to do a distracting task
3. people were then tested at various times for …

consonants; rehearsing; recall