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Flashcards in Mod 5 Deck (41)
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1

how did we move beyond phrenology?
by finding what happens when part of the brain is ... or otherwise unable to ...
by looking at the ... and ... of the brain through ..., ..., ..., and ... scans

damaged; work properly; structure; activity; CAT; MRI; fMRI; PET

2

strategies for finding out what is different about the mind when part of the brain isn't working normally:
- case studies of .. (e.g. ...)
-case studies of ... patients (... cut to stop ...)
- ... brain parts in animals to find out what happens
- chemically ..., magnetically ..., or electrically ... parts of the brain

accidents; Phineas Gage; split-brain; corpus callosum; seizures; lesioning; numbing; deactivating; stimulating

3

when a ... or ... damages part of the brain, we have a chance to see the impact on the mind

stroke; injury

4

lesions: ... of brain tissue
performed on ..
has yielded some insights, especially about ... brain structures
no longer necessary, as we now can ... or ... deactivate brain areas to get similar information

surgical destruction; animals; less complex; chemically; magnetically

5

split-brain:
"split" =- surgery in which the connection between the brain hemispheres is ... in order to end ...

cut; full-brain seizures

6

corpus callosum sends ... from one part of the brain to next
split-brain surgeries impacted people in such a way that it showed that all parts of the brain need to ...

signals; be in conversation

7

parts of the brain, and even ..., can be stimulated electrically, chemically, or magnetically. this can result in behaviors such as ..., ..., or simulated ...
researches can see which ... or ... fire in conjunction with certain ..., and even specific ...

neurons; giggling; head turning; vivid recall; neurons; neural networks; mental experiences; concepts

8

tools to read electrical, metabolic, and magnetic activity in the brain:
- EEG: ...
- PET: ...
- MRI: ...
- fMRI: ...

electroencephalogram; positron emission tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; functional MRI

9

an EEG is a recording of the ... sweeping across the brain's ... An EEG is useful in studying ... and ...

electrical waves; surface; seizures; sleep

10

EEGs use ... placed on the ...

electrodes; scalp

11

The PET scan allows us to see what part of the brain is ... by tracing where a ... form of ... goes while the brain performs a given task; shows how ... is flowing

active; radioactive; glucose; blood

12

MRI makes images from signals produced by brain tissue after ... the ... of ...
MRIs show that schizophrenics have ...

magnets align; spin; atoms; less brain matter

13

functional MRI reveals ... and ... rather than ... fMRI compares successive ... taken a split second apart, and shows changes in the level of ... in ... in the brain

brain activity; function; structures; MRI images; oxygen; bloodflow

14

the brainstem and cerebellum (...): ...

hindbrain; coordinates the body

15

the limbic (...) system (...): manages ... and connects ... to ...

border; midbrain; emotions; thought; body

16

the cortex (the outer covering) (....): integrates ...

forebrain; information

17

less complex brain structures include:
... (... and ...)
...
...
...
...

brainstem; pons; medulla; thalamus; reticular formation; cerebellum; limbic system

18

brainstem: most ... part of brain; sustains ...--..., ..., etc

simple; life; sleep regulation; breathing

19

the brain's innermost region begins where the ...

spinal cord enters the skull

20

brainstem contains the medulla which controls the most ... such as ... and ...
someone with total brain damage above the medulla could still ..., but someone with damage in this area could not

basic functions; heartbeat; breathing; breathe independently

21

the pons helps coordinate ... and ... movements

automatic; unconscious

22

pons controls movements such as ..., ..., ..., and .... movement. it also has a role in suppressing body movement during ...

swallowing; posture; facial expression; eye; REM sleep

23

the pons supports communication across the ... and also communication from the ... to the ...

hemispheres; frontal lobes; cerebellum

24

reticular (...) formation: a ... in the brainstem

netlike; nerve network

25

reticular formation enables ... (...) from ... to ...; it also filters incoming ...

alertness; arousal; coma; wide awake; sensory information

26

reticular formation branches from the ... up into the ...

spinal cord; thalamus

27

reticular formation controls ...: it selects which incoming information to send to other .. This enables us to follow a conversation in a crowd

selective awareness; brain areas

28

the thalamus (...)
the "..." or "..."
all ..., except ..., are routed through the thalamus on the way to the ... (higher, outer brain)

inner chamber; sensory switchboard; router; sensory messages; smell; cortex

29

the thalamus also sends messages from the ... to the ... and ...

cortex; medulla; cerebellum

30

damage to the thalamus can cause ... and other ..., even if the sensory organ is fine. however, it could not hurt ..., which bypasses the thalamus and goes straight to the ... in the brain

blindness; loss of senses; sense of smell; olfactory bulb