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Flashcards in Mod 10 Deck (40)
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1

psychoactive drugs are chemicals introduced into the body which alter …, …, and other elements of conscious experience

perceptions; moods

2

many psychoactive drugs can be harmful to the body. psychoactive drugs are particularly dangerous when a person develops an … or becomes … on the substance

addiction; dependent

3

factors related to addiction: …, …, impact on … of substance use, physical and psychological …

tolerance; withdrawal; daily life; dependence

4

tolerance of a drug refers to the diminished … after repeated use. tolerance feeds addiction because users take .. of a drug to get the desired effect

psychoactive effects

5

after the benefits of a substance wear off, especially after tolerance has developed, drug users may experience .. (painful symptoms of the body readjusting to the absence of the drug)

withdrawal

6

withdrawal … addiction because users want to resume taking the drug to end withdrawal symptoms

worsens

7

in physical dependence, the body has been altered in ways that create … for the drug (e.g. to end withdrawal symptoms)

cravings

8

in psychological dependence a person's resources for coping with daily life … as a drug becomes "needed" to …, .., or …

wither; relax; socialize; sleep

9

depressants are chemicals that reduce … and other body functions. examples: …, …, and …

neural activity; alcohol; barbiturates; opiates

10

(alcohol impact on functioning) slow …, reduced … nervous system activity, and slower … and … reaction

neural processing; sympathetic; thought; physical

11

(alcohol impact on functioning) reduced memory formation caused by disrupted … and reduced … formation

REM sleep; synapse

12

(alcohol impact on functioning) impaired .., impaired …, self-... and …; increased … and …

self-control; judgment; monitoring; inhibition; accidents; aggression

13

(alcohol impact on functioning) chronic use of alcohol can lead to

brain damage

14

barbiturates are …--drugs that depress … activity

tranquilizers; central nervous system

15

(alcohol impact on functioning) examples of barbiturates: Nembutal, seconal, amytal
effects of barbiturates: reducing … and inducing …
problems: reducing …, …, and …; can lead to … if combined with alcohol

anxiety; sleep; memory; judgment; concentration; death

16

opiates are highly … depressants

addictive

17

opiates depress … activity; this reduces …, and especially reduces …
high doses of opiates produce …

nervous system; anxiety; pain; euphoria

18

opiates work at … for the body's natural pain reducers (…)

receptor sites; endorphins

19

opiates are chemical such as … and … that are made from the opium …

morphine; heroin; poppy

20

stimulants are drugs which … neural activity and bodily functions

intensify

21

some physical effects of stimulants: … pupils, increased …. and …, increased …, decreased …
examples of stimulants: caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, methamphetamine, cocaine, ecstasy

dilated; breathing; heart rate; blood sugar; appetite

22

caffeine adds …, disrupts sleep for …-... hours, can lead to withdrawal symptoms if used daily: …, …, …, difficulty …, …

energy; 3;4; headaches; irritability; fatigue; concentrating; depression

23

the main effect of nicotine use is

addiction

24

nicotine arouses the brain to a state of …, increases … and …, at high levels, it relaxes … and triggers the release of neurotransmitters that may reduce …, reduces … to extremities, and suppresses appetite for …

increased alertness; heart rate; blood pressure; muscles; stress; circulation; carbohydrates

25

why do people smoke?
starting to smoke: invited by …, influenced by … and …
continuing: positively reinforced by … effects
not stopping: after regular use, smokers have difficulty stopping because of … symptoms such as insomnia, anxiety, distractibility, and irritability

peers; culture; media; physically stimulating; withdrawal

26

cocaine blocks reuptake (and thus increases levels at the synapse of:
… (feels rewarding)
… (lifts mood)
… (provides energy)
effect on consciousness: euphoria!! at least for … minutes

dopamine; serotonin; norepinephrine; 45

27

for cocaine: euphoria crashes into a state worse than before taking the drug, with …, …, and …
users develop tolerance; over time, withdrawal symptoms of cocaine use get worse, and users take more just to feel normal
cycles of overdose and withdrawal can sometimes bring …, …, …, and …

agitation; depression; pain; convulsions; violence; heart attack; death

28

methamphetamine triggers the sustained release of …, sometimes leading to … hours of euphoria and energy
what happens next: irritability, insomnia, ..., …, …,depression
"meth" addiction can become all-consuming

dopamine; 8; seizures; hypertension; violence

29

ecstasy/MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine)
ecstasy is a synthetic … that increases … and greatly increases …

stimulant; dopamine; serotonin

30

ecstasy effects on consciousness: …., … stimulation, …, and artificial feeling of … and …

euphoria; CNS; hallucinations; social connectedness; intimacy