Flashcards in Mod 22 Deck (28)
biological influences on learning:
genetic predispositions; unconditioned; adaptive
psychological influences on learning:
predictability of ...
experiences; associations; generalization; discrimination
john garcia and others found it was easier to learn associations that
make sense for survival
food aversions can be acquired even if the unconditioned response (nausea) does nto .. follow the neutral stimulus. when acquiring food aversions during pregnancy or illness, the body associates nausea with whatever food was eaten
males in one study were more likely to see a pictured woman as attractive if the picture had a
operant conditioning encounters ... and ... that are difficult to override
biological tendencies; limits
in classical conditioning:
when the dog salivates at the bell, it may be due to ... (learning to predict, even expect, the food)
knowing that our reactions are caused by conditioning gives us the option of mentally ... (e.g. deciding that nausea associated with a fodo aversion was actually caused by an illness)
higher ordering conditioning involves some ...; the name of a food may trigger salivation
cognition; breaking the association; cognition
in operant conditioning:
in fixed interval reinforcement, animals do more target .../... around the time that the reward is more likely, as if ... the reward
expectation as a cognitive skill is even more evident in the ability of humans to respond to ... such as a paycheck
higher-order conditioning can be enabled with ... (e.g. seeing something such as money as a reward bc of its indirect value)
behaviors; responses; expecting; delayed reinforcers; cognition
rats appear to form ... they can learn a maze just by wandering, with no cheese to reinforce their learning. evidence of these is revealed once the cheese is placed somewhere in the maze. after only a few trials, these rats quickly catch up in maze-solving to rats who were rewarded with cheese all along --> ... learning refers to skills or knowledge gained from ..., but not apparent in behavior until ...
cognitive maps; latent; experience; rewards are given
intrinsic motivation refers to the desire to perform a behavior well ... the reward is internalized as a ...
for its own sake; feeling of satisfaction
extrinsic motivation refers to doing a behavior to
receive rewards from others
intrinsic motivation can sometimes be reduced by ..., and can be prevented by using ...
external rewards; continuous reinforcement
one principle for maintaining behavior is to use as few ... as possible, and fade them over time
observational learning: watching what happens when other people do a behavior and
learning from their experience
skills required for observational learning; ...- being able to picture ourselves doing the same action and ...-noticing ... and ...
mirroring; cognition; consequences; associations
modeling: the behavior of others serves as a ..., an example of how to respond to a situation; we may try this model regardless of reinforcement
vicarious- experience d.., through others
vicarious reinforcement and punishment means our choices are ... as we see others get ... for their behaviors
indirectly; affected; consequences
albert bandura's bobo doll experiment: kids saw adults punching an inflated doll while narrating their aggressive behaviors such as "kick him" these kids were then put in a toy-deprived situation. and acted out the ...
same behaviors they had seen
when we watch others doing or feeling something, neurons fire in patterns that would fire if we were ... or ... ourselves. these neurons are referred to as ... and they fire only to ... the actions/feelings of others
doing the action; having the feeling; mirror neurons; reflect
humans are prone to ... of both behaviors and emotions (emotional contagion) --> this includes even ..., that is, copying adult behaviors that have no function and no reward
spontaneous imitation; overimitating
children with autism are less likely to ... and less likely to follow someone else's gaze as a neurotypical toddler would do
mirroring enables ...; we cognitively practice a behavior just by ... it
observational learning; watching
prosocial behavior refers to actions which ..., contribute ... to groups, and follow ... and ...
benefit others; value; moral codes; social norms
parents try to teach prosocial behavior through ..., but it may be taught best through ...--esp if the kids can see the benefits of the behavior to oneself or others
what happens when we learn from models who demonstrate antisocial behavior--actions that are ... to individuals and society? children who witness violence in their homes but are not physically harmed themselves may ... violence but still may become ... more often than the avg child
harmful; hate; violent
bobo doll effect--under stress we do what has been
modeled for us
research shows that viewing media violence leads to increased ... and reduced .. behavior