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Flashcards in Mod 19 Deck (54)
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1

frequency corresponds to our perception of ... --> ... of the sound wave; perceived as high and low sounds (pitch)

pitch; length

2

amplitude corresponds to our perception of ... --> ... or ... of sound wave; perceived as loud and soft (volume)

loudness; height; intensity

3

complexity corresponds to our perception of ... perceived as ... or ..

timbre; sound quality; resonance

4

the outer ear collects ... and funnels it to the ...

sound; eardrum

5

in the middle ear, the sound waves ... and move the ..., ..., and ... in ways that ... the vibrations. the stirrup then sends these vibrations to the ... of the ...

hit the eardrum; hammer; anvil; stirrup; amplify; oval window; cochlea

6

conduction hearing loss: when the ... isn't conducting soudn well to the ..

middle ear; cochlea

7

sensorineural hearing loss: when the receptor cells aren't ... through the ...

sending messages; auditory nerves

8

exposure to sounds that are too loud to talk over can cause damage to the ..., especially the ...

inner ear; hair cells

9

structures of the middle and inner ear can also be damaged by ...

disease

10

prevention methods for hearing loss include limiting exposure to noises over ...decibels and treating ...

85; ear infections

11

people with conduction hearing loss may be helped by ... these aids ... sounds striking the eardrum, ideally amplifying only ... or ...

hearing aids; amplify; softer sounds; higher frequencies

12

people with sensorineural hearing loss can benefit from a ... the implant does the work of the .. in translating ... into ... to be sent to the brain

cochlear benefit; hair cells; sound waves; electrical signals

13

loudness refers to more ... sound vibrations. this causes a greater ... of hair cells to send signals to the brain

intense; number

14

soft sounds only activate ...; louder sounds move those hair cells AND their ...

certain hair cells; neighbors

15

sounds usually reach one of our ears ..., and with more ..., than they reach the other ear. The brain uses this difference to generate a perception of the ... the sound was coming from

sooner; clarity; direction

16

we have senses of: ... and ..., four different components of the sense of ..., ../... awareness

smell; touch; touch; body/kinesthetic

17

touch is valuable for expressing and sensing ..., for sharing ..., ..., and ... for detecting the ... in multiple ways, such as pressure, warmth, cold, and pain

feelings; affection; comfort; support; environment

18

stroking adjacent pressure spots creates a ...

tickle

19

adjacet cold and pressure sensations feel ..

wet

20

adjacent warm and cold feels ...

searing hot

21

pain tells the body that something has gone wrong. pain often warns of ..., or even just to shift positions in a chair to keep ...

severe injury; blood flowing

22

not being able to feel pain means not being able to tell when we are ..., ..., or causing .. to our bodies

injured; sick; damage

23

nociceptors are sensory receptors whose signals are interpreted by the brain as ....

pain

24

the ... refers to signals that travel to the spinal cord, up through small nerve fibers, which then conduct pain signals to the brain

pain circuit

25

gate-control theory: this theory hypothesizes that the spinal cord contains a ... that ... pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. stimulating certain nerve fibers in the spinal cord through acupuncture, massage, or electrical stimulation seems to ... that gate

neurological 'gate'; blocks; close

26

endorphins: these hormones can be released by the body to

reduce pain perception

27

phantom limb sensation: as the brain produces false sounds (tinnitus, ear ringing) and sights (aura, lights with migraines), it can produce .. or other .. of amputated/missing arms or legs

pain; perception

28

distraction, such as during intense athletic competition, can limit the ...

experience of pain

29

memories of pain focus on ... moments more than ...

peak; duration

30

tapered pain is recalled as ... than ... pain

less painful; abruptly-ended