Flashcards in Mod 17 Deck (18)
Sensation: the process by which our ... and ... receive and represent ... from our environment --> the brain receives input from the ...
sensory receptors; nervous system; stimulus energies; sensory organs
perception: the process of ... and ... sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful ... and ... --> the brain makes sense out of the ... from sensory organs
organizing; interpreting; objects; events; input
bottom-up processing: taking sensory information and then
assembling and integrating it
top-down processing: using models, ideas, and expectations to
interpret sensory information
the process of sensation can be seen as three steps: ..., ..., and ...
reception; transduction; transmission
reception: the stimulation of ... by ... (sound, light, heat, etc.)
sensory receptor cells; energy
transduction: ... this cell stimulation into ...
transformation; neural impulses
transmission: ... this neural information to the ... to be ...
delivering; brain; processed
signal detection theory refers to whether or not we ..., esp amidst background noise. this depends not just on ... of the stimulus but on ... such as the person's ..., ..,. .., and ...
detect a stimulus; intensity; psychological factors; experience; expectations; motivations; alertness
the absolute threshold refers to the minimum level of ... needed to ... half the time
stimulus intensity; detect a stimulus
anything below the absolute threshold is considered ...
subliminal: below our threshold for being able to ...
consciously detect a stimulus
although we cannot learn complex knowledge from subliminal stimuli, we can be ..., and this will affect our subsequent choices
difference threshold refers to the minimum ... (in color, pitch, weight, temp, etc.) for a person to be able to ... half the time
difference; detect the difference
Weber's law refers to the principle that for two stimuli to be perceived as different, they must differ by a .... and not a ... (e.g. 1/100th of the weight, not 2 ounces):
minimum percentage; constant amount
to detect novelty in our surroundings, our senses tune out a ...
perceptual set is what we ..., which influences what we ... perceptual set is an example of ... processing
expect to see; do see; top-down