Flashcards in Mod 21 Deck (39)
operant conditioning involves adjusting to the ... of our behaviors, so we can easily learn to do more of what ..., and less of what ...
consequences; works; doesn't work
how operant conditioning works:
an act of chosen behavior (a ...) is followed by a ... or ... feedback from the environment.
... behavior is more likely to be tried again
... behavior is less likely to be chosen in the future
response; reward; punitive; reinforced; punished
classical conditioning: involves ... behavior, ..., ... reactions such as fear or craving
respondent; reflexive; automatic
these reactions to unconditioned stimuli become ... with neutral stimuli
classical conditioning: the experiment (neutral) stimulus repeatedly ... the respondent behavior, and eventually triggers that behavior
operant conditioning: involves ... behavior, chosen behaviors which ... on the environment. These behaviors become associated with consequences which ... (decrease) or .... (increase) the operant behavior
operant; operate; punish; reinforce
the experimental (consequence) stimulus in operant conditioning repeatedly ... the operant behavior, and eventually punishes or reinforces that behavior
thorndike's law of effect: edward thorndike placed cats in a puzzle box; they were rewarded with food (and freedom) when they solved the puzzle. Thorndike noted that the cats took ... to escape after repeated ... and ...
less time; trials; rewards
the law of effect states that behaviors followed by .... become more likely and behaviors followed by ... become less likely
favorable consequences; unfavorable consequences
B.F. skinner, like ivan pavlov, pioneered more controlled methods of studying conditioning. the ..., often called "the skinner box," allowed detailed tracking of rates of ... in response to different rates of ...
operant chamber; behavior change; reinforcement
reinforcement refers to any feedback from the environment that makes a behavior ...
more likely to recur
positive (adding) reinforcement: .. something ... (e.g. warmth)
negative (taking away) reinforcement: ... something ... (e.g., the cold)
if we repeatedly introduce a neutral stimulus before a reinforcer, this stimulus acquires the power to be used as a ...
a primary reinforcer is a stimulus that meets a ... or otherwise is intrinsically ..., such as food, sex, fun, attention, or power
basic need; desirable
a secondary/conditioned reinforcer is a stimulus, such as a rectangle of paper with numbers of on it (money) which has become associated with a ... (money buys food, builds power)
if you give a dog a treat ten minutes after they did a trick, you'll be reinforcing whatever they did right before the treat. dogs respond to ... reinforcement
humans have the ability to link a consequence to a behavior even if they aren't linked .... in time. the money can be a ... reinforcer, paid a month later, yet still reinforcing if we link it to our performance
delaying gratification, a skill related to impulse control, enables ...
longer-term goal setting
b.f. skinner experimented with the effects of giving reinforcements in different .... or "schedules" to determine what worked best to ... and ... a target behavior
patterns; establish; maintain
in ... reinforcement (giving a reward after the target every single time), the subject acquires the desired behavior ...
in .../... reinforcement (giving rewards part of the time), the target behavior takes longer to be acquired/established but ... without ...
partial; intermittent; persists longer; reward
we may schedule our reinforcements based on an ... that has gone by. we may plan for a certain ... of rewards per number of instances of the desired behavior
interval of time; ratio
fixed interval schedule: reward every
variable interval schedule: reward after a .../... amount of time passes
fixed ratio schedule: reward every ... behaviors
variable ratio schedule: reward after a randomly ... of the target behavior
fixed interval schedule brings ..., ... responding
variable interval schedule brings .., ... responding
slow; unsustained; slow; consistent
fixed ratio brings a ... of responding
variable ratio brings high, ... responding, even if reinforcement stops (resists ...)
high rate; consistent; extinction