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Flashcards in Mod 21 Deck (39)
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1

operant conditioning involves adjusting to the ... of our behaviors, so we can easily learn to do more of what ..., and less of what ...

consequences; works; doesn't work

2

how operant conditioning works:
an act of chosen behavior (a ...) is followed by a ... or ... feedback from the environment.
Results:
... behavior is more likely to be tried again
... behavior is less likely to be chosen in the future

response; reward; punitive; reinforced; punished

3

classical conditioning: involves ... behavior, ..., ... reactions such as fear or craving

respondent; reflexive; automatic

4

classical conditioning:
these reactions to unconditioned stimuli become ... with neutral stimuli

associated

5

classical conditioning: the experiment (neutral) stimulus repeatedly ... the respondent behavior, and eventually triggers that behavior

precedes

6

operant conditioning: involves ... behavior, chosen behaviors which ... on the environment. These behaviors become associated with consequences which ... (decrease) or .... (increase) the operant behavior

operant; operate; punish; reinforce

7

the experimental (consequence) stimulus in operant conditioning repeatedly ... the operant behavior, and eventually punishes or reinforces that behavior

follows

8

thorndike's law of effect: edward thorndike placed cats in a puzzle box; they were rewarded with food (and freedom) when they solved the puzzle. Thorndike noted that the cats took ... to escape after repeated ... and ...

less time; trials; rewards

9

the law of effect states that behaviors followed by .... become more likely and behaviors followed by ... become less likely

favorable consequences; unfavorable consequences

10

B.F. skinner, like ivan pavlov, pioneered more controlled methods of studying conditioning. the ..., often called "the skinner box," allowed detailed tracking of rates of ... in response to different rates of ...

operant chamber; behavior change; reinforcement

11

reinforcement refers to any feedback from the environment that makes a behavior ...

more likely to recur

12

positive (adding) reinforcement: .. something ... (e.g. warmth)

adding; desirable

13

negative (taking away) reinforcement: ... something ... (e.g., the cold)

ending; unpleasant

14

if we repeatedly introduce a neutral stimulus before a reinforcer, this stimulus acquires the power to be used as a ...

reinforcer

15

a primary reinforcer is a stimulus that meets a ... or otherwise is intrinsically ..., such as food, sex, fun, attention, or power

basic need; desirable

16

a secondary/conditioned reinforcer is a stimulus, such as a rectangle of paper with numbers of on it (money) which has become associated with a ... (money buys food, builds power)

primary reinforcer

17

if you give a dog a treat ten minutes after they did a trick, you'll be reinforcing whatever they did right before the treat. dogs respond to ... reinforcement

immediate

18

humans have the ability to link a consequence to a behavior even if they aren't linked .... in time. the money can be a ... reinforcer, paid a month later, yet still reinforcing if we link it to our performance

sequentially; delayed

19

delaying gratification, a skill related to impulse control, enables ...

longer-term goal setting

20

b.f. skinner experimented with the effects of giving reinforcements in different .... or "schedules" to determine what worked best to ... and ... a target behavior

patterns; establish; maintain

21

in ... reinforcement (giving a reward after the target every single time), the subject acquires the desired behavior ...

continuous; quickly

22

in .../... reinforcement (giving rewards part of the time), the target behavior takes longer to be acquired/established but ... without ...

partial; intermittent; persists longer; reward

23

we may schedule our reinforcements based on an ... that has gone by. we may plan for a certain ... of rewards per number of instances of the desired behavior

interval of time; ratio

24

fixed interval schedule: reward every

hour

25

variable interval schedule: reward after a .../... amount of time passes

changing; random

26

fixed ratio schedule: reward every ... behaviors

five targeted

27

variable ratio schedule: reward after a randomly ... of the target behavior

chosen instance

28

fixed interval schedule brings ..., ... responding
variable interval schedule brings .., ... responding

slow; unsustained; slow; consistent

29

fixed ratio brings a ... of responding
variable ratio brings high, ... responding, even if reinforcement stops (resists ...)

high rate; consistent; extinction

30

punishments have the ... effects of reinforcement. these consequences make the target behavior ... to occur in the future

opposite; less likely;