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Flashcards in Mod 27 Deck (40)
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1

Cognition refers to … and … associated with thinking, knowing, remembering,a nd communicating information

mental activities; processes

2

cognition can include .., …, and assembling new info into …

reasoning; judgment; knowledge

3

cognition also supports these other psychological processes: …, …, …, …, …, …, …, …, and …

attention; emotion; consciousness; perception; learning; memory; language; mental health; social interaction

4

A concept is a mental grouping of similar …, …, …, …, and/or …, etc

objects; events; states; ideas; people

5

a concept can be represented and communicated by an …, or by a … such as "chair," "party," or "democracy"

image; word

6

we think we form concepts by definitions. but, we often form concepts by developing …, that is, mental images of the best … of a concept

definitions; prototypes; example

7

we tend to mold our memories and perceptions to fit …

pre-existing categories/concepts

8

prototypes fail us when examples stretch our ..,. as in considering whether a stool is a chair

definitions

9

prototypes fail us when the … between concepts is fuzzy, as in judging blue-green colors or computer-blended faces

boundary

10

prototypes fail us when examples … our prototypes, such as considering whether a whale is a mammal, or a penguin is a bird

contradict

11

problem solving refers to the thinking we do in order to answer a … or to figure out how to resolve an …

complex question; unfavorable situation

12

strategies for arriving at solutions include:
…and …


trial; error; algorithms; heuristics; insight

13

trial and error involves trying various … and if that fails, trying others

possible solutions

14

an algorithm is a step by step … for solving a problem, methodically leading to a specific solution

strategy

15

a heuristic is a short-cut, step-saving … or … which generates a solution quickly (but possibly in error)

thinking strategy; principle

16

insight refers to a sudden …, a leap forward in …, that leads to a solution

realization; thinking

17

Saltin was a monkey who saw a banana out of his reach, had an … moment when he saw the stick in the room and used it to get the banana. the monkey had never previously …

ah ha; used a tool

18

insight refers to a …, a leap forward in thinking, that leads to a solution
we say "aha" and feel a sense of satisfaction when an answer seems to pop into our minds
joke punchlines rely on ..

sudden realization; sudden insight

19

there are certain tendencies in human cognition which make it more difficult to find correct solutions to problems:
…, …, and …

confirmation bias; fixation/mental set; heuristics

20

confirmation bias refers to our tendency to search for information which .., disregarding ..

confirms our current theory; contradictory evidence

21

Peter Wason's selection test: '
he gave the sequence of number "2,4,6" he asked students to guess his .., and ask him whether other certain numbers fit the rule --> study of …

rule; confirmation bias

22

the ultimate test of our mastery of confirmation bias in psychology might be our ability to avoid confirmation bias in ...

research

23

mental set: the tendency to approach problems using a … (procedures and methods) that has … previously

mindset; worked

24

fixation: the tendency to get stuck in one way of …; an inability to see a problem from a ...

thinking; new perspective

25

the human cognitive style of making judgments and decisions is more … than …

efficient; logical

26

the quick-acting, automatic source of ideas we use instead of … is known as ...

careful reasoning; intuition

27

as with problem-solving, there are mental habits which make intuition-style judgments simpler and quicker, but may lead to errors:
the availability …



all of these habits enable us to quickly make hundreds of small gut decisions each day without bothering with systematic reasoning

heuristic; overconfidence; belief perseverance; framing

28

we use the availability heuristic when we estimate the … of an event based on how much it … in our mind, that is, how much it's available as a mental reference

likelihood; stands out

29

overconfidence in judgments refers to our tendency to be more … than … we overestimate the accuracy of our estimates, predictions, and knowledge

confident; correct

30

overconfidence may have had survival value:
it allows …
feeling certainty reduces … and …
it may allow people to gain …

quick decisions; stress; anxiety; social power