Mod 28 Flashcards Preview

psych > Mod 28 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mod 28 Deck (35)
Loading flashcards...
1

language consists of the use of … to represent, transmit, and store meaning/informatin

symbols

2

symbols include organized patterns of …, …, and …

sounds; visual representations; movements

3

meaning includes …, …, …, …, …, .., .., and ...

concepts; quantities; plans; identity; feelings; ideas; facts; customs

4

uses and structure of language:
we can hear about and understand phenomena we have never ..
we can connect to people …
we can make plans have others …
we can know what another person is thinking more … than just by observing their behavior
we can … information

experienced; far away; carry them out; directly; store

5

phonemes are the smallest units of … (… and …)

sound; vowels; consonants

6

morphemes are the units of … (ie. words and meaningful parts of words such as …,...)

meaning; suffixes; prefixes

7

grammar refers to the rules for …, including …, …, …, and … (how the order of words makes meaning)

using words; semantics; definitions; connotations; syntax

8

we acquire the use of … new words per day (on avg) between ages 2 and 18

10

9

children learn the basic grammar of language before they can

add 2 +2

10

most kids can recall words and meanings, and assemble words into sentences, while simultaneously following … for speaking and listening

social rules

11

0-4 months: … language-associating sounds with …, and recognizing when sounds are … into words

receptive; facial movements; broken

12

4 months: … language-... in multilingual sounds and gestures

productive; babbling

13

10 months: babbling sounds more like the ..

parents'/household's language

14

12 months: … stage: understanding and beginning to say many ..

one-word; nouns

15

18-24 months: …-word, …/.. speech: adding .. and making sentences but missing words

two; telegraphic; tweet; verbs

16

24+ months, 2+ years: speaking … sentences and understanding ..

full; complex sentences

17

dogs and babies have … language

receptive

18

process of babies learning language is … --> they see parent's response and adjust their actions to that

operant conditioning

19

the role of genes: we seem to have an inborn (..) talent for … language, though no particular kind of language is in the genes

genetic; acquiring

20

the role of experience: we also seem to have a "..." pattern recognition talent. infants quickly recognize patterns in … and …, preparing them to later learn words and syntax

statistical; syllable frequency; sequence

21

according to one study with immigrants, beginning a language later made it harder to learn the … and the … of the second language

pronunciation; grammar

22

it is important to begin appropriate language exposure/education … so that language centers of the brain continue to … --> known as .. .period
language might never develop if not begun by age 7

early; develop; critical

23

deaf and blind children an use complex … by using other senses that are heightened

adapted languages

24

sign language has the syntax, grammar, and complex meaning of any

spoken language

25

aphasia: an impairment in the ability to … or …, usually caused by ...

produce; understand language; brain damage

26

damage to broca's area leads to difficulty in … in sentences or even .., although a person can sing a song

putting words together; speaking single words

27

damage to Wernicke's area leads to difficulty … and producing .. (not easily monitoring one's own speech to make sure it …)

comprehending speech; coherent speech; makes sense

28

both broca's and Wernicke's area are in the

left temporal lobe

29

how to read a word:
1. visual cortext receives … as …
2. angular gyrus transforms visual representations into an …
3. Wernicke's area …
4. broca's area controsl … via the …
5. motor cortex: word is …

written words; visual stimulation; auditory code; interprets auditory code; speech muscles; motor cortex; pronounced

30

productive language: many animals have "words": .., …, .. to communicate information, including different words for different objects, states, and places

sounds; gestures; dances