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Flashcards in Mod 12 Deck (49)
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1

forces guiding the course of development:
…, …, …
our environment gives us our experiences

parents; peers; culture

2

rats living in an "enriched" environment (more social interaction and physical play) experienced a greater growth in … and … than those rats living in an "impoverished" environment

brain size; complexity

3

to make our well-used brain pathways work better, the unused connections are … this means that if certain abilities are not used, they will …

"pruned" away; fade

4

generally, environmental influences, including parenting, account for about … percent of temperament, although a much higher percentage for other features such as …
where this percentage increases: "extreme" parenting, including severe … and ...

10; values; neglect; abuse

5

non-abusive "average' parents should ease off on both the … and the … they assume for how their kids turn out

blame; credit

6

the degree of peer influence is hard to trace. apparent conformity (the whole group smokes) could be a … (they get together because they want to be with others who like to smoke)

selection effect

7

interaction with peers can teach new

social skills

8

parents may try to have indirect influence by selecting a child's peers, such as by selecting a school or neighborhood. however, ultimately, most children … their peers

self-select

9

parents have more influence on:
... and …
...
...



style of interaction with …

education; career path; cooperation; self-discipline; responsibility; charitableness; religion; authority figures

10

peers have more influence on:
learning … skills
learning the path to …
choice of … and other recreation
choice of … and other … choices
… and …

cooperation; popularity; music; clothing; cultural; good and bad habits

11

culture refers to the patterns of ideas, attitudes, values, lifestyle habits, and traditions shared by a group of people and …

passed on to future generations

12

culture is not just an influence on our nature, but it is also part of … humans form not only …, but …

our nature; relationships; culture

13

each culture has …--standards for acceptable, expected behavior
culture shock: feeling lost about what behaviors are …

norms; appropriate

14

cultural variation can occur even within one culture:
language changes in .. and …
the pace of life …
.… increases
people sleep …, … less, stare at … more
people marry more for …, but then expect more …
thee cultural changes occur too fast to be rooted in … change

vocabulary; pronunciation; quickens; gender equality; less; socialize in person; screens; love; romance; genetic

15

individualist cultures value … they promote personal ideals, strengths, and goals, pursued in … with others, leading to … and finding a unique …

independence; competition; individual achievement; identity

16

collectivist cultures value … they promote group and societal goals and duties, and blending in with …, with achievement attributed to …

interdependence; group identity; mutual support

17

individualism:
independent (identity from individual traits)
discover and express one's …
me--personal achievement and fulfillment; rights and liberties; self-esteem
change reality
defined by … (self-based)
many, often temporary or casual; confrontation …
behavior reflects one's … and …

uniqueness; individuals; acceptable; personality; attitudes

18

collectivism:
interdependent (identity from belonging)
maintain …, fit in, perform role
Us--group goals and solidarity; social responsibilities and relationships; family duty
accommodate to reality
defined by … (duty-based)
few, close and enduring; harmony valued
behavior reflects … and …

connections ;social networks; social norms; roles

19

although there are cultural differences, the differences within any group are usually … than the differences between groups

greater

20

there is a difference in average blood pressure between … this may seem like a genetic difference but may actually be a cultural difference. different cultures may have …, which in turn affect blood pressure

racial groups; dietary differences

21

people in individualist cultures might raise children to be … and … People in collectivist cultures might raise children to be …, …, and integrated into webs of …
people in Asian and African cultures might raise children to be more … and … close to others than in western European cultures

self-reliant; independent; compliant; obedient; mutual support; emotionally; physically

22

gender refers to the …, …, and … characteristics that are culturally associated with male and female roles and identity. some of these traits may be … differences; other role differences may be nurtured by …

physical; social; behavioral; genetic; culture

23

in this example related to self-esteem, the difference … groups is small compared to differences … each gender

between; within

24

(differences between genders) biological: women enter puberty …, live …, and have more … and less ..

earlier; longer; fat; muscle

25

(differences between genders) mental and behavioral health: women are more likely to have …, …, or … disorders
men are more likely to have …, …, and … disorder

depression; anxiety; eating; autism; ADHD; antisocial personality

26

(differences between genders) gender and aggression: men behave more … than women, and are more likely to behave in way that harm others. this difference applies to … aggression rather than .. or … aggression

aggressively; physical; verbal; relational

27

in a variety of cultures, men have attributes and reputations that help them attain … (positions controlling more people and resources) than women do

social power

28

men tend to interact in more … ways than women. men often speak … rather than … and inviting … as women do

dominating; opinions; offering support; input

29

when boys play, the focus tends to be on the …
when women play, the focus tends to be on … and …

activity; connection; conversation

30

male play is more …
female play is more …

competitive; social