Mod 4 Flashcards Preview

psych > Mod 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mod 4 Deck (55)
Loading flashcards...
1

building blocks of mind: ... and how they .. (...)

neurons; communicate; neurotransmitters

2

systems that build the mind: functions of parts of the ...
supporting player: the slower-communicating ... system (...)

nervous system; endocrine system; hormones

3

phrenology (developed by ... in the early 1800s): the study of ... on the skull and their relationship to ... and ...

Franz Gall; bumps; mental abilities; character traits

4

phrenology yielded one big idea: that the brain might have different ... that do ... (... of ...)

areas; different things; localization; function

5

today's search for the biology of the self:

biological psychology

6

biological psychology includes ..., ..., ..., and ... psychology

neuroscience; behavior genetics; neuropsychology; evolutionary

7

all of the subspecialities of biological psychology explore different aspects of: how the nature of mind and behavior is rooted in our ...

biological heritage.

8

our study of the biology of the mind begins with the 'atoms' of the mind:

neurons

9

neuron structure:
cell body- the cell's ... center
dendrites- receive ... from other cells
axon- passes ... away from the ... to other ..., ..., ...
terminal branches of axon- form ... with other cells
myelin sheath- covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed ...

life-support; messages; messages; cell body; neurons; muscles; glands; junctions; neural impulses

10

neural impulse (...): ... signal traveling down the ..

action potential; electrical signal; axon

11

action potential: a neural ... that travels down an axon like a ...
just as "the wave" can flow to the right in a stadium even though the people only move up and down, a wave moves down an axon although it is only made up of ... moving ... and ...

impulse; wave; ion exchanges; in; out

12

direction of neural impulse: toward

axon terminals

13

when does the cell send the action potential? when it reaches a

threshold

14

the neuron receives ... from other neurons; some are telling it to fire and some are telling it not to fire.
when the ... is reached, the action potential starts moving. like a gun, it either fires or it doesn't; more stimulation does ... This is known as the "..." response.

signals; threshold; nothing; all-or-none

15

the action potential travels down the axon from the ... to the ... The signal is transmitted to another cell. However, the message must find a way to cross a gap between cells. this gap is also called the ...

cell body; terminal branches; synapse

16

the synapse is a junction between the ... of the sending neuron and the ... or ... of the receiving neuron. The synapse is also known as the ... or ...

axon tip; dendrite; cell body; synaptic junction; synaptic gap

17

.... are chemicals used to send a signal across the synaptic gap

neurotransmitters

18

reuptake: ...

recycling neurotransmitters

19

reuptake: after the neurotransmitters stimulate the receptors on the receiving neuron, the chemicals are ... into the sending neuron to be ..

taken back up; used again

20

(roles of different neurotransmitters) serotonin: affects ..., ..., ..., and ...
undersupply of serotonin linked to ...; some antidepressant drugs raise serotonin levels

mood; hunger; sleep; arousal; depression

21

(roles of different neurotransmitters) dopamine: influences .., ..., ..., and ...
oversupply linked to ...; undersupply linked to ... and decreased ... in ... disease and ...

movement; learning; attention; emotion; schizophrenia; tremors; mobility; parkinson's; adhd

22

(roles of different neurotransmitters) acetylcholine (ACh): enables ... action, ..., and ...
ACh-producing neurons deteriorate as ... disease progresses

muscle action; learning; memory; Alzheimer's

23

(roles of different neurotransmitters) norepinephrine: helps control ... and ...
undersupply can depress ... and cause ...-like ... problems

alertness; arousal; mood; ADHD; attention

24

(roles of different neurotransmitters) GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid): a major ... neurotransmitter
undersupply linked to ..., ..., and ...

inhibitory; seizures; tremors; insomnia

25

(roles of different neurotransmitters) glutamate: a major ... neurotransmitter; involved in ...
oversupply can overstimulate the ..., producing ... or ...; this is why people avoid MSG (monosodium glutamate) in food

excitatory; memory; brain; migraines; seizures

26

serotonin pathways: networks of neurons that communicate with ... help regulate ...

serotonin; mood

27

dopamine pathways: networks of neurons that communicate with dopamine are involved in focusing ... and controlling ...

attention; movement

28

neurotransmitters have a molecular structure that precisely fits the ... site on a specific ...

receptor; receiving neuron

29

an agonist molecule fills the receptor site and ..., acting like the neurotransmitter. they ... neurotransmitters

activates it; mimic

30

antagonist molecules fill the lock so that the neurotransmitter cannot get in and ...

activate the receptor site