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Flashcards in Mod 3 Deck (41)
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1

the scientific method is the process of testing our ideas about the world by:
setting up situations that ..
making careful, organized ...
analyzing whether the data fit with ...
if the data doesn't fit our ideas, then we ... and .. again

test our ideas; observations; our ideas; modify our ideas; test

2

some research findings revealed by the scientific method: '
the brain can recover from massive early childhood ...
sleepwalkers are not acting out ...
our brains do not have accurate ... locked inside like video files.
there is no ".. and ... 90 percent" of our brain
people often change their ... to fit their ...

brain damage; dreams; memories; hidden; unused; opinions; actions

3

scientific method: tools and goals
the basics:
..., ..., ... definitions, ...

theory; hypothesis; operational; replication

4

scientific method research goals/types:
..., ..., ..., ..., ...

description; correlation; prediction; causation; experiments

5

a theory in the language of science is a set of ..., built on ... and other verifiable facts, that explains some phenomenon and predicts its ...

principles; observations; future behavior

6

a hypothesis is a testable ... consistent with our ...

prediction; theory

7

"testable" means that the hypothesis is stated in a way that we could make ... to find out if it is true

observations

8

danger when testing hypothesis:
theories can ... our observations
we might select only the data, or the interpretations of the data, that support what we ... there are safeguards against this:
- hypotheses designed to ...
- ... definitions

bias; already believe; disconfirm; operational

9

the next/final step in the scientific method: ... research means trying it again using the same .. of the ... and ...

replicating; operational definitions; concepts; procedures

10

descriptive research is a ..., ... observation of people. the goal is to provide a clear, accurate picture of people's ..., ..., and ...

systematic; objective; behaviors; thoughts; attributes

11

strategies for descriptive research:
...: observing and gathering information to compile an in-depth study of ...
... observation: gathering data about ...; watching but not ...
... and ...: having other people report on their own ... and ..

case study; one individual; naturalistic; behavior; intervening; surveys; interviews; attitudes; behavior

12

case study:
benefit- can be a source of ideas about ...
danger- ... from one example

human nature in general; overgeneralization

13

naturalistic observation:
observing natural behavior means ... (and ...) and not trying to change anything. this method can be used to study more than one individual, and to find truths that apply to a ...

just watching; taking notes; broader population

14

the survey: a method of gathering information about many people's ... or ... through ... rather than ...
keys to getting useful information: be careful about the ... of questions
only question ... people

thoughts; behaviors; self-report; observation; wording; randomly sampled

15

surveying:
wording effects-the results you get from a survey can be changed by your

word selection

16

why take a sample?
sampling saves ...
random sampling is a technique for making sure that every individual in a population has an ... of being in your sample--> random means that your selection of participants is driven only by ..., not by any ...

time; equal chance; chance; characteristic

17

a possible result of many descriptive studies: discovering a ...

correlation

18

correlation
general def: an observation that two traits or observations are ... to each other
scientific def: a measure of how closely two factors ..., or how well you can predict a change in one from observing a ... in the other

related; vary together; change

19

the correlation coefficient is a number representing the ... and ... of correlation

strength; direction

20

the strength of the relationship refers to how close the dots are to ..., which means one variable changes ... as the other one does; this number varies from ... to ...

a straight line; exactly; 0,00; +/- 1.00

21

the direction of the correlation can be ... (both variables ... together) or ... (as one goes up, the other goes ...)

positive; increase; negative; down

22

correlation is not ...

causation

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so how do we find out about causation? by ...

experimentation

24

experimentation: manipulating one ... (...) in a situation to determine its ... (...)

factor; independent; effect; dependent

25

an experiment is a type of research in which the research carefully manipulates a limited number of ... (..) and measures the impact on ... (..)

factors; IVs; other factors; DVs

26

in psychology, you would be looking at the effect of the experimental change (IV) on a ... or ... (DV)

experimental change; behavior; mental process

27

random sampling is how you get a ... of ... that represents the population you're trying to learn about
random assignment of participants to ... or ... groups is how you control all... except the one you're manipulating.
first you ..., then you ... (...)

pool; research participants; control; experimental; variables; sample; sort; assign

28

placebo effect: experimental effects that are caused by ... about the ...

expectations; intervention

29

working with the placebo effect:
control groups may be given a ... - an inactive substance or other fake treatment in place of the experimental treatment
the control group is ideally .. to whether they are getting real or fake treatment

placebo; blind

30

many studies are double-blind: neither ... nor ... knows which participants are in the experimental or control groups (prevents ...)

participants; research staff; placebo effect