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Flashcards in Mod 1 Deck (21)
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1

Aristotle (4th century BCE) asked questions to understand the relationship between ... and ... His way of answering those guesses was to ... an d...

body; psyche; observe; make guesses

2

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) added two key elements to help make psychology a science:
1. carefully ...
2. ...

measured observations; experiments

3

Wilhelm Wundt's 1879 experiment measured the time it took for people to:
push a .. when a ... (based on when they heard it hit a ...):
... of a second
push a ... when consciously ... of hearing the ball ...:
... of a second

button; ball dropped; platform; 1/10th; button; aware; hit the platform; 2/10ths

4

Edward Titchener's structuralism:
titchener, like his teacher wilhelm wundt, relied on '...' data. He had people engage in ..., reporting on ... and other elements of experience, in reaction to stimuli such as the smell or feel of a flower

self-report; introspection; sensations

5

titchener tried to use these introspective reports to build a view of the mind's ... he called this view ...

structure; structuralism

6

william james (1942-1910) developed ... he studied human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and asked: what ... might they serve? how might they have helped our ancestors ...?
he wrote ...

functionalism; function; survive; principles of psychology

7

william james mentored another

psych pioneer

8

wilhelm wundt and edward titchener around 1900 defined psych as: the science of ...
cognitive psychologists, 1960s, studied ..., helped by ...
now we combine these definitions: the science of ... and ... processes

mental life; internal mental processes; neuroscience; behavior; mental processes

9

(trends in psychological science)
behaviorism:
john b. watson- by pairing a bunny with a loud noise, watson taught a baby (...) to ... this is called ...

B. F. Skinner- used ... conditioning to teach pigeons to do amazing things to ... he later wrote about how human communities could be shaped by this method

Little Albert; fear rabbits; classical conditioning; operant; get rewards

10

(trends in psychological science) Freudian/psychoanalytic psychology:
Sigmund Freud, founder of ... (late 1800s)- he studied and helped people with a variety of ...
his school of study and treatment focused on the role of ..., ..., and ..., and emphasized the importance of ...

psychoanalysis; mental disorders; unconscious drives; wishes; needs; childhood experiences

11

(trends in psychological science) humanism:
humanists: ... and ... (1960s):
studied people who were ... rather than those who had ...
developed theories and treatments to help people to feel ... and to .....

Abraham Maslow; Carl Rogers; thriving; psychological problems; accepted; reach their full potential

12

the big issue in psych: the ... question:
to what extent are our traits already set in place at birth? and to what extent do our traits develop in response to our environment/experience?

nature-nurture

13

Nature:
plato- ideas such as ".." and "..." are ...
Descartes: some ideas are ...
Charles Darwin: some .., ...,a nd ... are part of the ... of the species

the good; beauty; inborn; innate; traits; behaviors; instincts; nature

14

nurture:
aristotle- all knowledge comes through the ...
john locke: the mind is a ... "written on" by ..

senses; blank slate; experience

15

we share a common ... that gives us an inborn human ... in common + we have differences shaped by our ...

origin; nature; environment

16

biology plus environment... are part of psychology's three ... levels of analysis
the deep level: ...- ..., ..., ..., ..., ..., ...
in the middle: ...-..., .., .., ..., ..., ..., ..., ..., ...
the outer level: ...- ... influences, ..., ..., ...

biopsychosocial; biology; genes; brain; neurotransmitters; survival; reflexes; sensation; psychology; thoughts; emotions; moods; choices; behaviors; traits; motivations; knowledge; perceptions;
environment; social influences; culture; education; relationships

17

biological influences on some psychological phenomenon:
- ... of ...
- ... responding to environment
- ...
- ... influences

natural selection; adaptive traits; genetic predispositions; brain mechanisms; hormonal

18

psychological influences on some psychological phenomenon:
- learned ... and other learned ...
- ... responses
- ... and ... interpretations

fears; expectations; emotional; cognitive processing; perceptual

19

social-cultural influences on some psychological phenomenon:
- ... of others
- ..., ..., and ...
- ... and other ... influences
- ... (such as in the media)

presence; cultural; societal; family expectations; peer; group; compelling models

20

different perspectives for describing psychological phenomena: "
- ... perspective
- ...
- ...
- ...
- ...
- ...
- ...

cognitive; social-cultural; behavioral genetics; neuroscience; psychodynamic; behaviorist; evolutionary

21

types of applied psychology:
..., ..., ..., ..., ...

clinical; counseling; educational; industrial-organizational; community