Mod 20 Flashcards Preview

psych > Mod 20 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mod 20 Deck (30)
Loading flashcards...
1

we learn from experience:
when we learn to .. events we already like or don't like by noticing other .. or ... that happen first
when our actions have ...
when we watch what ...

predict; events; sensations; consequences; other people do

2

we learn by association:
when two stimuli (events or sensations) tend to occur ... or in ...
when actions become associated with ... or ... results
when two pieces of information are ...

together; sequence; pleasant; aversive; linked

3

classical conditioning: learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an even to which we

have ar eaction

4

operant conditioning: changing ... choices in response to ...

behavior; consequences

5

cognitive learning: acquiring new behaviors and information through ... and ..., rather than by ...

observation; information; direct experience

6

associative learning: classical conditioning--> after repeated exposure to two stimuli occurring in sequence, we ...
result: our natural response to one stimulus now can be ... by the new, predictive stimulus

assocciate those stimuli with each other; triggered

7

cognitive learning refers to acquiring new behaviors and information ..., rather than by ...

mentally; direct experience

8

cognitive learning occurs by ... events and the behavior of others and by using .. to acquire information about events experienced by others

observing; language

9

the term behaviorism was used by John B. Watson, a proponent of ..., as well as by B.F. Skinner, a leader in research about ...

classical conditoning; operant conditioning

10

both watson and skinner believed the mental life was much less important than ... as a foundation for ...

behavior; psychological science

11

both watson and skinner foresaw applications in controlling human behavior:
skinner conceived of ... communities
watson went into ...

utopian; advertising

12

while studying salivation in dogs, Ivan Pavlov found that salivation from eating food was eventually triggered by what should have been ... such as:
just seeing food, seeing the dish, seeing person who brought food and hearing that person's footsteps

neutral stimuli

13

neutral stimulus: a stimulus which does not

trigger a response

14

unconditioned stimulus and response; a stimulus which triggers a response .., before/without any ...

naturally; conditioning

15

the UR and the CR are the same .., triggered by different ...--> the difference is whether ... was necessary for the response to happen

response; events; conditioning

16

the NS and the CS are the same ...--> the difference is whether the stimulus triggers the ...

stimulus; conditioned response

17

higher-order conditioning: turning an ... into a ... by associating it with another ...

NS; CS; CS

18

acquisition refers to the initial stage of ../...

learning; conditioning

19

what gets acquired? the association between a ... and ...

NS; unconditioned stimulus

20

how can we tell that acquisition has occurred?the UR now gets ... by a ...

triggered; CS

21

timing: for the association to be acquired, the neutral stimulus needs to repeatedly appear ... the unconditioned stimulus...about a .. before, in most cases

before; half-second

22

the strength of a CR grows with ...

conditioning

23

extinction refers to the diminishing of a ... response. If the US stops appearing with the CS, the ... decreases

conditioned; CR

24

After a CR has been conditioned and then extinguished: following a rest period, .... might occur--> a return of the conditioned response despite a lack of further ...
if the CS is again presented repeatedly without the US, the CR becomes ... again

spontaneous recovery; conditioning; extinct

25

generalization refers to the tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by

related stimuli

26

discrimination refers to the learned ability to only respond to a ..., preventing ...

specific stimuli; generalization

27

(Pavlov's legacy) insights about conditioning in general--> it occurs in all creatures, it is related to biological ... and ...

drives; responses

28

(Pavlov's legacy) insights about science--> learning can be studied ..., by quantifying actions and isolating ... of behavior

objectively; elements

29

(Pavlov's legacy) insights from specific applications--> substance abuse involves ..., and these triggers can be avoided/associated with new responses

conditioned triggers

30

john b. watson and classical conditioning: playing with fear --> in 1920, 9-month-old little albert wasn't afraid of rats. watson and rosalie rayner than clanged a steel bar every time a rat was presented to albert. albert acquired a ..., and generalized this fear to other ... and ... things. watson prided himself in his ability to shape people's ... and later went into advertising

fear of rats; soft; furry; emotions