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Flashcards in Mod 24 Deck (28)
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1

how we hold stories in storage, explicit memory system occurs in … and the …

frontal lobes; hippocampus

2

how we retain responses and procedures, the implicit memory system: … and …

cerebellum and basal ganglia

3

how synapses change to help store memories:

long-term potentiation

4

the brain is not like a hard drive. memories are not in isolated files, but are in

overlapping neural netowrks

5

the brain's long-term memory storage does not get full; it gets more elaborately … and …

rewired; interconnected

6

parts of each memory can be … throughout the brain

distributed

7

karl Lashley showed that rats who had learned a maze retained …,e ven when various small parts of their brain were …

parts of that memory; removed

8

there are different storage and retrieval/activation systems in the brain for ../… memory and for …/… memory

explicit; declarative; implicit; procedural

9

when emotions become involved, yet another part of the brain can … some memoriese for quicker retrieval

mark/flag

10

the storage occurs by changing … to each other in order to make some well-used neural networks of neurons easier to activate together

how neurons link

11

explicit/declarative memories include …, …, and … such as the first time riding a bike, or facts about types of bicycles

facts; stories; meanings of words;

12

retrieval and use of explicit memories, which is in part a working memory or executive function, is directed by the

frontal lobes

13

encoding and storage of explicit memories is facilitated by the … events and facts are held there for a couple of days before …, moving to other parts of the brain for long-term storage. much of this consolidation occurs during ...

hippocampus; consolidating; sleep

14

implicit memories include .., …, and …

skills; procedures; conditioned associations

15

the cerebellum ("little brain") forms and stores our … we can store a phobic response even if we can't recall how we acquired the fear

conditioned responses

16

the basal ganglia, next to the thalamus, controls …, and forms and stores … and … skills. we can learn to ride a bicycle even if we can't recall having the lesson

movement; procedural memory; motor

17

infantile amnesia: … memory from infancy can be retained, including … and … responses. however … memories, our recall for episodes, only goes back to about age … for most people

implicit; skills; conditioned; explicit; 3

18

explanation for infantile amnesia:
encoding: the memories were not stored … because the … is one of the last brain areas to develop
forgetting/retrieval: the adult mind thinks more in a … verbal narrative and has trouble accessing … memories as declarative memories

well; hippocampus; linear; preverbal

19

strong emotions, especially …, can strengthen memory formation

stress

20

… refer to emotionally intense events that become "burned in" as a vivid-seeming memory

flashbulb memories

21

note that flashbulb memories are not as … as they feel

accurate

22

vividly storing information about … may have helped our ancestors survive

dangers

23

how does intense emotion cause the brain to form intense memories?
1. emotions can trigger a rise in …
2. these hormones trigger activity int he …, located next to the memory-forming …
3. this region of the brain increases … and engages the … and … to "tag" the memories as important

stress hormones; amygdala; hippocampus; memory-forming activity; frontal lobes; basal ganglia

24

as a result, the memories are stored with more sensory and emotional details. these details can trigger a …, unintended … of the memory. traumatized people can have … that is so vivid that it feels like re-experiencing the event

rapid; recall; intrusive recall

25

when people form memories, their neurons release … to other neurons across the …, the junctions between neurons

neurotransmitters; synapses

26

with repetition, the synapses undergo …; signals are sent across the synapse more …
synaptic changes include a reduction in the … needed to send a signal, and an increase in the number of …

long-term potentiation; efficiently; prompting; neurotransmitter receptor sites

27

chemicals and shocks that prevent long-term potentiation can prevent … and even …

learning; erase recent learning

28

preventing long-term potentiaton (LTP) keeps new memories from … for example, mice forget how to run a maze. drugs that boost LTP help mice learn a maze more quickly and with …

consolidating into long-term memories; fewer mistakes