Flashcards in NHPA: obesity Deck (19)
carrying around excess body weight (fat) that can have a negative impact on health.
weight measurements/BMI for obese?
• For adults, defined as BMI of atleast 30 and waist measurement of atleast 88cm (females) or 102cm (males)
what causes obesity?
• Often caused when energy intake outweighs energy expenditure, but also by metabolic problems
why is the rate of obesity in australia increasing?
• Australians have been eating more food and are exercising less than
why is obesity a NHPA?
Can lead to the development of other conditions (key determinant for type 2 and gestational diabetes, CVD, arthritis and kidney disease – decreasing obesity levels can help decrease the prevalence of these conditions).
Contributes greatly to BOD in Australia (particularly YLD, eg. difficulty in exercising).
Often preventable (by eating a more nutrient dense/less energy dense diet and exercising more).
Direct costs to inv's
• Weight management programs and copayments for medications
• Costs due to related conditions: eg. ambulance fees for heart attack
Direct costs to comm
• Doctor/specialist fees to diagnose obesity
• Operating public and private hospitals for people hospitalised by heart attack related to obesity
• Costs associated with implementing health promotion programs (eg. LiveLighter)
• Taxes paid towards Medicare and PBS
Indirect costs to ind's
Due to related conditions
• Can’t work – loss of income
• If can’t do the housework, costs of additional services (eg. housekeeper)
Indirect costs to comm
• Loss of productivity
• Welfare due to not working
• Costs of carers
Intangible costs to ind's
• Mental health: self conscious low self esteem
• Sleep disturbances due to related conditions, eg. sleep apnoea
• Reduced fitness levels/ can’t exercise as at high intensity (as increase in tissues requiring oxygen)
• Lowered energy levels
• Adjustments required to make dietary changes
Intangible costs to comm
• Stress and anxiety for family and friends if diagnosed with related condition
• Feelings of frustration for family and friends if they have to take time out of lives to care for them due to related condition
Define: sleep apnoea
excess weight pushes the walls of the through together, which can temporarily halt breathing and force person to wake up.
• as age increases, metabolism slows down; becomes more difficult to maintain weight.
Basal metabolic rate
• lower BMR results in less energy being used, which can lead to obesity
• Leptin contributes to appetite and fat distribution
• Disturbances in levels of/sensitivity to leptin can lead to obesity.
• Lack of physical activity
• Energy dense diet
• Excessive alcohol consumption (as alcohol contains kilojoules)
physical environment determinants?
Access to recreation facilities
• If it doesn’t facilitate incidental exercise (walking up stairs, around factory…) can lead to weight gain.
• Seating arrangements
• Passive methods of transport (eg. car travel) can lead to increased obesity risk
• Not having transport to get fresh fruit and vegetables can lead to reliance on processed foods…
• Low SES
• Food insecurity, leading to reliance on processed foods
• Stress (eating may be a response to it)
• Early life experience (more likely if obese in childhood, due to difficulties in losing weight and changing dietary and physical activity behaviours)
Livelighter campaign: WHO?
• Developed by Department of Health Western Australia
• Implemented in Victoria; funded by Victorian Government and carried out by the Heart Foundation and the Cancer Council
• Assist adults in eating well, being physically active and maintaining a healthy body weight
• In doing so, to reduce impact of related conditions such as CVD, T2D, some cancers (colorectal/breast cancer)