NHPA: obesity Flashcards Preview

U3 HHD: Understanding Australia's Health > NHPA: obesity > Flashcards

Flashcards in NHPA: obesity Deck (19)
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Define: obesity

carrying around excess body weight (fat) that can have a negative impact on health.


weight measurements/BMI for obese?

• For adults, defined as BMI of atleast 30 and waist measurement of atleast 88cm (females) or 102cm (males)


what causes obesity?

• Often caused when energy intake outweighs energy expenditure, but also by metabolic problems


why is the rate of obesity in australia increasing?

• Australians have been eating more food and are exercising less than


why is obesity a NHPA?

Can lead to the development of other conditions (key determinant for type 2 and gestational diabetes, CVD, arthritis and kidney disease – decreasing obesity levels can help decrease the prevalence of these conditions).
Contributes greatly to BOD in Australia (particularly YLD, eg. difficulty in exercising).
Often preventable (by eating a more nutrient dense/less energy dense diet and exercising more).


Direct costs to inv's

• Weight management programs and copayments for medications
• Costs due to related conditions: eg. ambulance fees for heart attack


Direct costs to comm

• Doctor/specialist fees to diagnose obesity
• Operating public and private hospitals for people hospitalised by heart attack related to obesity
• Costs associated with implementing health promotion programs (eg. LiveLighter)
• Taxes paid towards Medicare and PBS


Indirect costs to ind's

Due to related conditions
• Can’t work – loss of income
• If can’t do the housework, costs of additional services (eg. housekeeper)


Indirect costs to comm

• Loss of productivity
• Welfare due to not working
• Costs of carers


Intangible costs to ind's

• Mental health: self conscious  low self esteem
• Sleep disturbances due to related conditions, eg. sleep apnoea
• Reduced fitness levels/ can’t exercise as at high intensity (as increase in tissues requiring oxygen)
• Lowered energy levels
• Adjustments required to make dietary changes


Intangible costs to comm

• Stress and anxiety for family and friends if diagnosed with related condition
• Feelings of frustration for family and friends if they have to take time out of lives to care for them due to related condition


Define: sleep apnoea

excess weight pushes the walls of the through together, which can temporarily halt breathing and force person to wake up.


biological determinants?

• as age increases, metabolism slows down; becomes more difficult to maintain weight.
Genetic predisposition
Basal metabolic rate
• lower BMR results in less energy being used, which can lead to obesity
Hormonal disturbances
• Leptin contributes to appetite and fat distribution
• Disturbances in levels of/sensitivity to leptin can lead to obesity.


behavioural determinants?

• Lack of physical activity
• Energy dense diet
• Excessive alcohol consumption (as alcohol contains kilojoules)


physical environment determinants?

Access to recreation facilities
Work environment
• If it doesn’t facilitate incidental exercise (walking up stairs, around factory…) can lead to weight gain.
• Seating arrangements
Transport systems
• Passive methods of transport (eg. car travel) can lead to increased obesity risk
• Not having transport to get fresh fruit and vegetables can lead to reliance on processed foods…


Social determinats?

• Low SES
• Food insecurity, leading to reliance on processed foods
• Stress (eating may be a response to it)
• Early life experience (more likely if obese in childhood, due to difficulties in losing weight and changing dietary and physical activity behaviours)


Livelighter campaign: WHO?

• Developed by Department of Health Western Australia
• Implemented in Victoria; funded by Victorian Government and carried out by the Heart Foundation and the Cancer Council


LL: aims?

• Assist adults in eating well, being physically active and maintaining a healthy body weight
• In doing so, to reduce impact of related conditions such as CVD, T2D, some cancers (colorectal/breast cancer)


LL: how?

Advertising campaigns
• Found in newspapers, online and on TV
• They are very graphic/confronting to educate people on the dangers of obesity and abdominal fat, and to encourage Australians to lose excess weight … and to reduce obesity levels in Australia.
Resources on their website
• Am I at risk? Tool
o Gauges risk for obesity – teaches how to take waist circumference, and BMI calculator
o Also has information for risk of related conditions
o Resources to reduce risk
• 12 week meal and activity planner
o Creates meal plan based on energy needs (age, sex, height, weight, waist circumference) and over time gives them more freedom to choose their meals.
o Also has space for physical activity to be put
• Recipes:
o Provides nutrient dense rather than energy dense meals to reduce obesity risk
o For breakfast, light/main meals, desserts, snacks and drinks
• Top tips
o Watch portion sizes, limit intake of unhealthy fats, avoid sugary drinks, eat healthier when out (grilled rather than fried, salads), be active everyday