Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (49)
purpose of carbohydrates
Provides fuel for energy.
• Carbs metabolised by body to form glucose, which produces energy
• Unused glucose molecules are stored as fat tissue – this process can be reversed.
carbohydrates as a risk nutrient?
too much --> obesity and related conditions
what is fibre?
Indigestible parts of plant food.
how does fibre prevent constipation?
adding bulk to faces and helps to remove waste from digestive tract.
relationship between fibre and water?
fibre absorbs water - increasing water consumption
fibre as a protective nutrient?
Obesity: makes a person feel full with less kJ’s. Reduces need to consume more energy.
Diabetes: reduces absorption of glucose from small intestines, reducing obesity and diabetes risk
CVD: binds to bile, which is made of choleseterol which would otherwise be reabsorbed into blood.
These foods tend to have less saturated fat.
sources of fibre?
Fruits (apples, bananas)
Vegetables (potato, broccoli)
protein energy content?
slightly more than glucose, half of fats
primary fucntion of protein?
promotes growth, maintenance and repair of cells.
secondary function of protein?
when there are insufficient amounts of fats/carbs, they are used as fuel for energy production.
effects of having too much protein?
converted into glucose and hence to fat (obesity and related conditions)
• Puts strain on kidneys and liver, which control protein metabolism
• Loss of calcium from bones, leading to osteoporosis
effects of protein deficiency?
reduce bone density and increase risk of osteoporosis
examples of protein?
Dairy (except cream), eggs
Beef, chicken, poultry, fish and seafood.
Soy products (tofu, soy milk)
Legumes (beans, peas
Whole grain cereals
fats (in general) as a risk nutrient?
energy dense so can lead to obesity and related conditions
4 types of at?
monounsaturated as a protective nutrient?
Lowers LDL, reducing risk of atherosclerosis and CVD
When eaten instead of sat fat, reduces impact of impaired glucose regulation and T2D.
sources of monounsaturated fat?
Nuts and PB
types of polyunsaturated fat
omega 3 and omega 6.
best ratio of omega 3 to omega 6
polyunsaturated fat as a protective nutrient?
• Lower LDL and increase HDl cholesterol, reducing CVD
• Reduce impact of inflammation of blood vessels, reducing CVD
• Omega 3: promotes elasticity of blood vessels and prevents blood clots in arteries.
Reduces impact of impaired glucose regulation reduced T2D
examples of polyunsaturated fat
Omega 3: fish (esp. oily fish like salmon), soy/canola oils, canola based margarine
Omega 6: most nuts and seeds, sunflower and soy oils.
saturated fat as a risk nutrient
Contains a lot of LDL cholesterol and causes liver to increase its production. Leads to atherosclerosis and CVD.
Increases impaired glucose regulation, leading to T2D
saturated fat examples?
Fatty cuts of meat (especially the visible fat)
Full cream milk, cream, cheese
Coconut milk and cream
Most fried takeaway foods
Most commercially baked goods.
how are trans fats formed?
some nautraly, others through hydrogenation: when unsaturated fat is converted to solid fat
trans fat as a risk nutrient?
Raise LDL, lower HDL, leading to atherosclerosis and CVD.
Interfere with structure of cell membranes and the passage of glucose across it – leading to impaired glucose regulation and T2D
Increases risk of colorectal cancer directly
examples of trans fats?
Process foods (pies, pastries, cakes)
what percent of body mass is water?
how much water should we drink?