Flashcards in Biological determinants Deck (44)
Define: biological determinants
factors relating to the body that impact health
How is bmi measured?
: (Weight kg)/[Height (m)]^2
Categories for BMI?
o Under 18.5 is underweight.
o 18.6-24.9 is healthy weight
o 25-29.9 is overweight
o Over 30 is obese.
What doesn't BMI take into account?
how do we meausre fat distribution?
Waist circumfurence o 88cm for females and 102 for males means greater risk of ill health
What is higher proportion of abdominal fat linked to?
Higher risk of disease and illness dummkopf
Effects of high body weight?
High body weight can lead to obesity. Obesity can lead to:
• High blood pressure
• High blood cholesterol
• Impaired glucose regulation/type 2 diabetes
• Cardiovascular disease
• Some cancers (esp. colorectal)
• Respiratory problems
• Self esteem issues and depression
• Social exclusion
Describe blood pressure
• Increases as the heart contracts and expels blood, because more pressure is applied to vessel walls (aka. systolic pressure)
• Decreases as heart relaxes and fills with blood, therefore less pressure is applied to vessel walls (aka. diastolic pressure)
How is blood pressure measured?
Using a sphygmomanometer – has a column of mercury
What is blood pressure measured in adn how is it reported?
millimetres of mercury (mmHg). Systolic/diastolic
normal blood pressure?
high blood pressure
Does high blood pressure have symptoms
How can hypertension be diagnosed
only through check ups
how can hypertension be controlled
medication and lifestyle changes
What does hypertension mean in terms of blood vessels?
Blood doesn't flow through them as easily. Therefore the heart and kidney (filters blood) must work harder
Causes of hypertension?
• Lack of physical activity
• Excess alcohol consumption
• Genetic predisposition
• Poor diet (esp. excess sodium)
• Atherosclerosis (narrowed arteries means strain on heart)
• Low birth weight
Effects of hypertension?
• Cardiovascular disease (heart attack and stroke)
• Kidney failure
type of fat produced in liver required for maintaining cell membranes and producing hormones.
cholesterol is found in what?
some animal products
how can blood cholesterol levels be raised?
by eating trans/saturated fats and cholesterol
What is bad cholesterol?
LDL (low density lipoprotein)
what is good cholesterol?
How can levels of cholesterol be checked?
With a blood test
Risk factors for high blood cholesterol?
• Excessive alcohol intake
• Lack of exercise
• Genetic predisposition
• High saturated fat and trans fat intake
Effects of high blood cholesterol?
Too much LDL - atherosclerosis (leads to heart attack and stroke)
hardening and narrowing of arteries, due to too much LDL deposited on walls of blood vessels which leads to less space for blood to travel through and other substances (Eg. calcium to become embedded)
How can blood cholesterol levels be produced?
• Lifestyle interventions can reduce cholesterol levels, but if genetically predispositioned then medication may be necessary.
Define: insulin resistance
when the body becomes resistant to the action of insulin – which can lead to type 2 diabetes and cv disease.