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U3 HHD: Understanding Australia's Health > Biological determinants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biological determinants Deck (44)
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1

Define: biological determinants

factors relating to the body that impact health

2

How is bmi measured?

: (Weight kg)/[Height (m)]^2

3

Categories for BMI?

o Under 18.5 is underweight.
o 18.6-24.9 is healthy weight
o 25-29.9 is overweight
o Over 30 is obese.

4

What doesn't BMI take into account?

fat distribution

5

how do we meausre fat distribution?

Waist circumfurence o 88cm for females and 102 for males means greater risk of ill health

6

What is higher proportion of abdominal fat linked to?

Higher risk of disease and illness dummkopf

7

Effects of high body weight?

High body weight can lead to obesity. Obesity can lead to:
• High blood pressure
• High blood cholesterol
• Impaired glucose regulation/type 2 diabetes
• Cardiovascular disease
• Some cancers (esp. colorectal)
• Respiratory problems
• Arthiritis
• Self esteem issues and depression
• Social exclusion

8

Describe blood pressure

• Increases as the heart contracts and expels blood, because more pressure is applied to vessel walls (aka. systolic pressure)
• Decreases as heart relaxes and fills with blood, therefore less pressure is applied to vessel walls (aka. diastolic pressure)

9

How is blood pressure measured?

Using a sphygmomanometer – has a column of mercury

10

What is blood pressure measured in adn how is it reported?

millimetres of mercury (mmHg). Systolic/diastolic

11

normal blood pressure?

120/80

12

Define: hypertension

high blood pressure

13

Does high blood pressure have symptoms

no

14

How can hypertension be diagnosed

only through check ups

15

how can hypertension be controlled

medication and lifestyle changes

16

What does hypertension mean in terms of blood vessels?

Blood doesn't flow through them as easily. Therefore the heart and kidney (filters blood) must work harder

17

Causes of hypertension?

• Stress
• Obesity
• Lack of physical activity
• Smoking
• Excess alcohol consumption
• Genetic predisposition
• Poor diet (esp. excess sodium)
• Atherosclerosis (narrowed arteries means strain on heart)
• Low birth weight

18

Effects of hypertension?

• Cardiovascular disease (heart attack and stroke)
• Kidney failure

19

Define: cholesterol

type of fat produced in liver required for maintaining cell membranes and producing hormones.

20

cholesterol is found in what?

some animal products

21

how can blood cholesterol levels be raised?

by eating trans/saturated fats and cholesterol

22

What is bad cholesterol?

LDL (low density lipoprotein)

23

what is good cholesterol?

HDL

24

How can levels of cholesterol be checked?

With a blood test

25

Risk factors for high blood cholesterol?

• Excessive alcohol intake
• Smoking
• Lack of exercise
• Genetic predisposition
• High saturated fat and trans fat intake
• Obesity

26

Effects of high blood cholesterol?

Cv disease
Too much LDL - atherosclerosis (leads to heart attack and stroke)

27

Define: atherosclerosis

hardening and narrowing of arteries, due to too much LDL deposited on walls of blood vessels which leads to less space for blood to travel through and other substances (Eg. calcium to become embedded)

28

How can blood cholesterol levels be produced?

• Lifestyle interventions can reduce cholesterol levels, but if genetically predispositioned then medication may be necessary.

29

Define: insulin resistance

when the body becomes resistant to the action of insulin – which can lead to type 2 diabetes and cv disease.

30

how can insulin resistance be treated?

lifestyle changes such as
• Weight loss
• Diet
• Quitting smoking
• Managing stress