Injury prevention and control Flashcards Preview

U3 HHD: Understanding Australia's Health > Injury prevention and control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Injury prevention and control Deck (23)
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1

Define: injury prevention and control

adverse effects on the human body that may result from a range of different events

2

can be...

accidental or intentional (suicide/voilence)

3

Can cause...

hospitalisations, disability and premature death

4

aim of this NHPA?

prevent injuries and reduce their impact on individuals and communities

5

why is it an NHPA?

• Major contributor of BOD, both YLD and YLL.
• Most cases preventable
• Cause significant costs to individuals and community

6

direct costs to indv?

• Ambulance transport
• Patient co-payments for medications (to reduce pain (eg, nurofen) and risk of infection)
• Patient co-payments for doctor/specialist services (often require ongoing treatment from them)

7

direct costs to comm

• Medicare contribution for surgery and other treatment in hospitals (for all public hospital fees and some private)
• PBS contributions for medicines
• Aids (eg. wheelchairs and crutches), by private health insurance companies and other insurance agencies eg. TAC and workcover
• Health promotion programs

8

indirect costs to indv

• Cost for long term care
• Employing services like housekeepers and mowing lawns
• Transport costs (if reduced mobility, might need taxis)

9

indirect costs to comm

• Long term care often paid for by insurance agencies (TAC and Workcover)
• Government contribution to cost of carers
• Loss of productivity
• Welfare payments
• Lost taxation revenue

10

intangible costs to indv

• Effects on mental health
• Frustration in relearning tasks
• Having to adjust to living without limbs

11

intangible costs to comm

• Family and friends may experience grief and shock, especially as deaths can be sudden

12

biologicla determsins?

Age
• Young children are more likely to drown (less knowledge of water and swimming skills, proportionately heavy head which they may struggle to lift out of water).
• Young children more likely to suffer accidental poisoning, as they might not be able to read warnings on labels
• Young adult males are more likely to self harm and be in road crashes
• Older people are more likely to die from falls, due to weaker bodies which are more affected by trauma, and decline in eyesight and motor skills. More likely to cause fractures due to reduced bone mass
Sex/hormones
• Males have higher levels of testosterone, leading to higher levels of risk taking behaviour, leading to higher rates of injuries among males.

13

behavioural dets?

Alcohol use
• More likely to take unnecessary risks, resulting in higher rates of injury
Drug use
• Driving under the influence can lead to disability and death
• Can cause higher rates of mental illness, leading to self harm and violence
Physical activity
• Contact sports  increased risk of sport related injuries

14

physical env dets?

Alcohol use
• More likely to take unnecessary risks, resulting in higher rates of injury
Drug use
• Driving under the influence can lead to disability and death
• Can cause higher rates of mental illness, leading to self harm and violence
Physical activity
• Contact sports  increased risk of sport related injuries

15

social dets?

Socioeconomic status
• Lower  more likely to be injured
• Due to lower education levels, types of occupations, ack of financial resources to ensure cares are in safe working order
Social exclusion/isolation
Might not have people to talk to when needed  increased risk of mental health issues and injuries from self harm

16

health promotion program?

the national road safety strategy 2011-2020

17

nrss who?

government group made of reps from federal/state/territory governments called the Australian Transport Council

18

nrss aim?

cut road toll by atleast 30% by 2020, by addressing factors that contribute to injuries on road below)

19

nrss how?

Based on “Safe System” approach – people using roads will make mistakes, therefore the whole system needs to be addressed to reduce the impact of these areas.

20

safe roads?

Installing bike lanes to reduce car-bike collisions
 Barriers between traffic flowing in opposite directions to prevent head on collisions
 Putting ped crossings and speed humps in residential areas to decrease risk of injury to pedestrians
 Use of rumble strips – alert drivers of drifting out of lanes
 Removal of vegetation/other hazards that may limit driver visibility

21

safe speeds

Point to point speed cameras (recording average speed over a distance) than standard speed cameras (just at one point)
Reduced speed limits at intersections to decrease risk of collision

22

safe vehicles

Expanding Australian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP) to increase coverage of crash test results across the full range of new vehicles on the Australian Market

23

safe people?

Using mass advertising campaigns to educate drivers of dangers of using phone whilst driving
Working with police to do random breath testing and random roadside drug testing programs to deter people from drink/drug driving.