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U3 HHD: Understanding Australia's Health > Dementia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dementia Deck (24)
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Define: dementia

umbrella term for over 100 conditions characterised by progressive and irreversible loss of brain function.


what happens as brain function deteriorates

cognitive and behavioural patterns are affected Ultimately leads to complete dependence on others and death.


describe alzhiemers

due to build up of proteins both in and around brain cells, which limits the ability of messages to be transmitted between cells, impairing brain function.
most common in people over 65


desceribe vascular dementia

due to reduced blood flow to the brain – due to stroke/series of small strokes, or other damage to blood vessels and circulation.


why do cells die in vascular dementia

reduced oxygen and nutrietns to brain cells - leading tod eath


describe dementia iwth lewy bodies

• Caused by spherical proteins (Lewy bodies) inside nerve cells of the brain, causing their degeneration and death.


describe frontotemporal dementia

due to progressive damange to frontal and temporal lobes (either or both)
frontal - judgement and social behaviour
temporal - understanding the meaning of words


why is it an nhpa

• Contributes significantly to burden of disease (YLD as it causes significant impairment in daily functioning, and YLL as it leads to death)
• Contribute significant cost to both individuals and communities: especially with regards to formal and informal care.


direct costs to indv?

• Patient co-payments for medication required to treat dementia
• Potential patient co-payments for GP visits


direct costs to comm?

• Medicare contribution GP visits
• PBS contributions for medication to treat dementia.
• Funding for health promotion programs eg. Your Brain Matters


indrect costs to indv?

If children have to take time off work to care for them:
• Lost income
• Paying for services
Copayments for carers


indirect costs to comm?

If children have to take time off work to care for them:
• Loss of productivity
• Lost tax revenue
Cost of carers


intangible costs to indv/

• Frustration


intangible costs to comm?

• Frustration
• Sadness of them being forgotten
• Grief if they die


biological risk factors?

• Risk factor – rates increase in over 65 year olds
• Lewy bodies more common in males
Genetic predisposition
• Increased chance if family members have
Body weight
• Risk factor for Alzhiemers
Blood pressure:
• Risk factor for all
Downs syndrome
• Risk factor for Alzheimers


behavioural risk factors?

Tobacco smoking
• Impaired blood flow  vascular
Alcohol consumption
• Korsakoffs syndrome
Physical inactivity
• Deteriorates blood vessels, increasing risk of vascular
Dietary behaviours
• High blood cholesterol is a risk – hence are sat/trans, and poly/monounsaturated a protective.
Lack of mental stimulation
• Risk factor for dementia


physical env factors?

Vascular dementia :
Air quality/environmental tobacco smoke
• Environmental tobacco smoke can clog blood vessels and increase risk
Access to recreation facilities/transport systems/work environment
• Reduce physical activity, reducing function of blood vessels  vascular dementia
Transport systems – may increase risk of social exclusion, hence that of dementia


social factors?

• Lower levels  higher risk
Social exclusion
• Increases risk



your brain matters



alzheimer's australia



reduce risk of dementia my improving modifiable riskf actors


describe the brainy app

• Quiz that assesses current risk of dementia
• Points to users profile every time they record behaviours that may reduce risk
• Word/memory game to promote mental stimulation.


describes 5 simple steps to maximise your brain health

5 steps - describing how they relate to dementia, and tips for reducing risk in regards to each.
look after your heart
be physically active
mentally challenge your brain
follow a healthy diet
enjoy social activity


describe tips given for each

Look after your heart: quit smoking, monitor bp/cholesterol
Be physically active: encourages people to do physical activity – 30 minutes of moderate activity
Mentally challenge your brain: by taking up a new sport/language
Follow a healthy diet: Eat more polyunsaturated/monounsaturated far, less trans/saturated
Enjoy social activity: take up dance classes/volunteer