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U3 HHD: Understanding Australia's Health > Cancer Control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Control Deck (24)
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define: cancer

umbrella term for a range of conditions where uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells threatens to damage other parts of the body.


when do tumours form

when abnormal cells grow and divide.


tumours can be...

benign or malignant (aka. malignant neoplasm/cancer)


why are cancerous tumours dangers?

can invade nearby tissue and interrupt their function; or can metastasise –


what is metastasis

when cancerous cells spread to other parts of the body.


why is this nhpa called cancer control?

it focuses on not just prevention, but also early detection and effective streatment.


8 types of cancer this focuses on?

prostate, breast, colorectal, lung, melanoma, non-melanoma, cervical cancer and non-hodgkin's lymphoma.


why is it an nhpa?

• Contributes significant costs to communities and individuals.
• Contributes greatly to BOD in Australia (particularly YLL, as cancer can often lead to death).
• Often preventable through lifestyle changes (reducing UV exposure, eating healthy diet)


direct costs to inv?

• Patient copayments for CRS
• Patient copayments for PBS subsidised cancer drugs


direct costs to comm?i

• Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery costs covered by Medicare
• PBS covers some cost of cancer drugs
• Health promotion programs, eg. SunSmart


indirect costs to indv?

• Can’t work – loss of income
• If can’t do the housework, costs of additional services (eg. housekeeper)


indirect costs to comm/

• Loss of productivity
• Lost taxation revenue
• Welfare due to not working


intangible costs to indv/

• Pain and suffering
• Anxiety, as it can lead to death
• Missing school/work can reduce socialisation and self esteem.


intangible costs to comm?

• Feelings of stress, sadness and despair…
• Grief


bio dets?

Body weight
• Can increase risk of colorectal and breast cancer
• Increases with age
Genetic predisposition
• Inheritance of specific mutated genes can increase risk of breast and prostate cancer


behavioural dets?

Tobacco smoking
• Contains chemicals that can contribute to all cancers, esp lung.
Alcohol consumption
• Increase risk of breast cancer
Poor dietary behaviorus
• High fat low fibre increase risk of colorectal, lung, prostate cancer
• Fruit and veg have nutrients and antioxidants which reduce risk of these
Sun protection behaviours
Sexual behaviours
• Infected with HPV is a risk factor for cervical cancer
Vaccination behaviour
• Vaccinated against HPV  less likely to develop cervical cancer


phsical env dets?

Access to recreation facilities
Work environment
• Outdoor  increased UV exposure
• Exposure to hazardous substances  increased lung cancer risk
Air quality
• If poor (like in industrial areas) increased pollutants  increased risk of lung cancer
Environmental tobacco smoke
• Places like Aus have increased exposure to UV radiation
Geographical location of resources
• Far from cancer screening services  late detection  lower survival


social dets?

• More likely to smoke and consume alcohol in greater quantities
Food security
• Leads to poor dietary behaviours
• Can suppress immune system and allow cancerous cells to develop
Access to healthcare
• Reduced due to cultural barriers/lack of education about cancer screening  late detection  lower survival


health promotion campaign?

sunsmart campaign



• Funded by Cancer Council Victoria and Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, implemented by CCV.



• To minimise huan cost of skin cancer in Victoria
• To promote a balance between the benefits and harms of UV exposure


describe advertising campaigns?

• Eg. Slip, slop, slap, seek, slide: features Sid the Seagull singing a catchy tune whilst modelling the behaviours – encouraging kids to do the same.


describe sunsmart app?

• Make a profile – based on skin type, height/weight/gender/age
• Put in a location and then gives the hours of sun protection required, and the current and max UV levels.


describes schools programs

Encourages primary and secondary schools to implement sunsmart policies that meets the CCV’s criteria – by using sun protection measures (slip, slop, slap, slide, seek) during sun protection times.