Flashcards in Cardiovascular Health Deck (27)
Define: cv health
health of the heart and blood vessels.
• Aims to promote cardiovascular health in the ENTIRE POPULATION (not just in those with CVD)
improved cardiovascular health directly relates to
reduced levels of CVD
Define: cvd/heart/circulatory disease
includes all diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
types of cvd?
hypertension, coronary heart diseases, stroke and peripheral vascular disease (affects extremities)
type of cvd depends on
area of body affected by blocked blood vessels
does it often develop over several years, showing up in later life?
main cause of cvd?
build-up of plaque on the walls of blood vessels, which narrows the passages that blood can pass through.
what's the plaque made up of?
cholesterol (the “glue”), other fatty substances, human tissue and calcium
describe how buildup of plaque leads to cvd
o When the plaque thickens it can narrow or completely block blood flow.
When narrowed, strain on the heart and the organs/muscles that the blood is being pumped to occurs.
When completely blocked, blood can’t transport oxygen to cells and cells can die.
why is cvd a nhpa
• Contributes significantly to burden of disease (particularly YLD as cardiovascular disease can often lead to death)
• Contribute significant cost to both individuals and communities (cost the health system $7.7 billion in 2008-09)
• Often preventable (in particular, the lifestyle related determinants leading to CVD)
direct costs to indv?
• Ambulance transport for heart attack
• Patient co-payments for medications to lower BP
• Patient co-payments for doctor/specialist services
direct costs to comm?
• Medicare contribution for bypass surgery (for blocked arteries)
• PBS contributions for essential medicines eg. BP medication
• Private health insurance fund contributions towards treatment in private/rehabilitation hospitals
• Funding for health promotion programs eg. Live Lighter
indirect costs to indv?
• Changes in living conditions (eg. needing to install ramps in home if bound to wheelchair)
• Social and financial changes (eg. having to hire housekeeper)
indirect costs to comm?
• Loss of productivity
• Social security and other government payments
• Cost of carers
intangible costs to indv?
• Mental health issues like stress and anxiety (often results in death)
• Pain and suffering associated with recurring symptoms, eg. chest pain and heart attacks
• Lifestyle changes – missed social experiences, rehabilitation, dietary changes
intangbile costs to comm?
• Stress and anxiety for family and friends if diagnosed with related condition (and grief if they die)
• Lifestyle changes for family members to assist in caring for them after heart attack, stroke or surgery
• Increases levels of hypertension and blood cholesterol, and places strain on the heart
• High BC increases risk of plaque build up on artery walls
• Increases risk of heart attack/stroke, indicates the heart is already working harder.
Diabetes (a risk factor)
• as age increases, heart loses efficiency and basal metabolism decreases, making weight management harder
• Increased chance if family members have
• Males tend to be apple shaped, store fat around the abdomen and heart which is risk factor
• Increases BP, contributes to plaque build up
Excess alcohol consumption (leads to obesity)
Insufficient physical activity (leads to obesity)
Poor dietary behaviour
• Too many calories leads to obesity
• Too much fat leads to high blood cholesterol
• Not enough fruit and veggies: has nutrients that might reduce CVD risk; might snack on energy dense alternatives
physical environment dets?
Environmental tobacco smoke
• Can cause individuals to inhale chemicals which increase rate of atherosclerosis
• Prolonged noise exposure can increase stress and hypertension
ALL OF OBESITY
• More likely to be obese
• More likely to smoke and consume excessive amounts of alcohol
• Higher stress levels
• Less control over job means more CVD
• High stress jobs more likely to develop CVD
• Can lead to reliance on processed foods
• Long periods produce physical changes that increase risk of heart attack and hypertension
Early life experiences
• Healthy weight in childhood are more likely to have healthy weight later in life
• Habits in early life may carry through to later years.
health promotion campaighn
Victorian Government (including VicHealth), cancer council and National Heart Foundation
to decrease the prevalence of smoking (by assisting current smokers to quit) and preventing the uptake of smoking in non smokers. This in turn reduces risk of CVD and some cancers.
qc: describe quitline
phone hotline that helps people to quit.
• On the first cell they discuss smoking history, motivation to quit and understanding their smoking habit. Then they set up a plan to quit – with advice about quitting strategies/products, and on how to manage cravings etc.
• Users can arrange times for the QuitLIne to call them.
• Online equivalent