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Flashcards in Psychological Disorders Deck (88)
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1

Psych Disorders: Global Problem

-WHO: 450 million people suffer from mental/behavioral disorders
-Rates/symptoms vary culture to culture
-Different ways they diagnose them
-Universal disorders:
-Depression: USA=emotions and feelings of sadness, Collectivist=physical symptoms (lack of energy, lethargy)
-Schizophrenia

2

Psychological Disorder

-A syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion, regulation, or behavior

3

Significant Disturbance

-3D definition
-Behaviors are:
-Deviant
-Distressful
-Dysfunctional
-Significant if meets all 3

4

Deviance

-Being different
-Standards vary according to time and culture (context)
-Mass killing: spree or war hero
-Hearing voices: connection with God?
-Same intrinsic behavior, different reasoning
-1973: Homosexuality dropped by APA as disorder
-Not only criterion

5

Distressful

-Deviance not always a disorder
-Exceptional behavior (straight As, perfect SAT)
-Must also cause person/ society distress
-Attacking their hold on reality

6

Harmful dysfunction

-Must impair your life and normal functioning
-Fear vs. Phobia
-Scared of spiders vs. extreme fear, impossible to function

7

Historical perspectives of psych disorders

-Astrology (lunar cycles)
-Evil spirits (Possessed)
-Satanic possessions

8

Historical treatments of psych disorders

-Trephination: Method of releasing evil spirits from skull by drilling a hole
-Cages
-Beatings
-Burning

9

Philippe Pinel

-French reformer
-Moral treatment of people exhibiting disorders
-Brutality replaced by compassion
-Viewed madness as illness
-Wanted to give people more freedom, treat them like humans

10

Syphilis

-Infects brain
-Kickstarted medical model for psych issues
-Clear-cut physical cause for behavioral change
-Eats away at soft tissue,starts to eat away at brain if not treated

11

Dorothea Dix

-Nurse
-Known for starting mental asylum movement
-No longer need to hide people
-Started state-run institutions

12

Nellie Bly

-Pretended she was insane to expose mistreatment in asylums

13

Medical Model

-Concept that disease, in this case psych disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and cured
-Ignores that we are biopsychosocial systems
-Needs more wholistic view
-Good for time period

14

Anxiety Disorders

-Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
1. General anxiety disorder
2. Panic Disorder
3. Phobias

15

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

-Continually, unexplainably:
-tense
-apprehensive
-state of autonomic NS arousal

16

Symptoms of General Anxiety Disorder

-Unfocused, out of control negative feelings
-Persistent heart palpitations
-Sweaty palms
-Ringing in ears
-Edginess
-Shaking

17

What is the cause of anxiety?

-Hard to identify
-Anxiety= "free floating"
-Therefore, can't deal with or avoid its cause

18

Anxiety's physical problems

-Ulcers
-High blood pressure

19

Target population of GAD

-2/3 female
-By age 50, GAD= rare
-Mellows out with age

20

Panic Disorders

-Unpredictable, minute long episodes of:
-Intense dread
-Terror
-Chest pain
-Choking
-Other frightening sensations
-Overwhelming panic

21

Anxiety Tornado (Panic Disorder)

-Anxiety escalates into a panic attack
-Unpredictable, wreaks havoc, gone
-Intense fear that something horrible is about to happen
-Affects 1 in 75 people
-Smokers risk= doubled

22

Phobia

-Persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation

23

Specific Phobia

-Single focus of phobia
-Not all phobias have specific triggers
-Ex: social anxiety disorder (social phobia)
-Intense fear of being scrutinized by others
-Ex: Agoraphobia: fear or avoidance of situations, such as crowds or wide open spaces, where one has felt loss of control and panic

24

Treatments to Phobias

-Flooding
-Exposed to phobia all at once (Overwhelmed)
-Systematic desensitization
-Taught relaxation techniques (biofeedback)
-Paired w/ gradual exposure to phobia
*Behavioral therapy

25

Obsessive-Compulsive New Disorders

-Hoarding
-Excoriation (skin picking)
-Substance/medication- induced OCD/related disorder
-OCD and related disorders due to another medical condition

26

Trichotillomania

-Hair-pulling disorder
-Impulse control disorder= OCD/related disorder

27

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

-Unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions)
-Ex: concern w/ germs
-Unwanted repetitive actions (compulsions)
-Ex: hand washing
*Obsessions can lead to compulsions

28

Survivor resiliency

-Positive Psych of PTSD
-Those people who do not suffer from PTSD after trauma
-Peter Suedfeld studies resilience of Holocaust survivors
-Often correlated with higher levels of compassion and empathy

29

Post-Traumatic Growth

-Positive Psychology of PTSD
-Changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
-Ex: facing cancer--> greater appreciation for life, changed priorities, richer spirituality

30

OCD Target Population

-Affect 2-3%
-More common among teens and young adults
-Symptoms mellow w/ age