Emotion (Modules 40-41) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Emotion (Modules 40-41) Deck (24)
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1

Emotions

-Response of the whole organism
-Energize and direct our behaviors, like motivations
-Ex: if angry, find a way to channel anger in behavior

2

3 Components of Emotions

1. Physiological arousal (reaction w/in body)
2. Expressive behavior (feel emotion, show it)
3. Conscious experience (cannot feel emotion unless aware of it)

3

Example of 3 Components of Emotion

Sadness
-Heart rate changes, BP changes (physiological arousal)
-Cry, frown (expressive behavior)
-Awareness of sadness (conscious experience)

4

Key Controversies

1. Does physiological arousal precede or follow your emotional experience?
2. Does cognition precede emotion?

5

Theories of Emotion

3 basic attempts to explain how emotion works, and the order which emotion occurs (arousal, emotion, or thought first?)
1.James-Lange
2. Cannon-Bard
3. Schachter 2 Factor (Cognitive)

6

William James

-James-Lange Theory of Emotion
-Physiological arousal before emotion
-Each physiological arousal creates a certain emotion
-Mixes of arousals create emotions

7

Problem with James-Lange Theory of Emotion

-In order to work, emotions need to be linked to an exact physiological arousal
-Doesn't happen, body does same thing for many emotions

8

Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion

-Arousal and emotion occur simultaneously
-Brain works quickly
-At this time: people had just discovered the thalamus
-If there is a sensory switchboard, there wouldn't be a lag

9

Problems with Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion

-Paralyzed individuals report lower levels of emotional feeling
-Connection between what body does and what we feel

10

Modern Theories of Emotion

-Schachter 2 Factor (Schachter-Singer)
-Zajonc
-LeDoux
*Address cognition

11

Schachter

Schachter 2 Factor Theory of Emotion
-Cognition can define emotion
-Cognitively label our arousal--> emotion being created
-Factor 1: arousal, Factor 2: cognitive label
-Perception of Stimulus--> arousal and cognitive label--> emotion

12

Bridge Experiment

-College age men
-Condition A: Walk across dangerous bridge, meet woman at the end
-Give number so they can ask questions
-Heightened sense of arousal
-More likely to ask out woman because they associated their arousal with attraction
-Condition B (Control Group): Lower bridge, still meet woman at the end and get number
*Shows how we can misinterpret our arousals

13

Spillover Effect

-We have a lingering physiological arousal from a past situation that spills over into a current situation
-We come up with a label even though this arousal was triggered by another situation
-Ex: sports fans excited from game, not adrenaline

14

Schachter and Singer SpillOver Effect experiment

-Expect side effects vs No side Effects
-Cognitive labeling of physiological arousal that has been artificially induced
-All injected with adrenaline (epinephrine)
-Sat in a waiting room
-Confederate: artificially placed in experiment, playing role of participant
-Expressed extreme emotion (Loud)
-Expect side effects: no emotional change)
-No side effects: mirrored confederate
-Needed to find a label for their side effects--> readily adopted confederate's emotions
*Arousal fuels emotion, cognition channels it

15

Zajonc

-We have emotional responses outside of cognition
-Ex: we can be subliminally primed to feel certain things outside conscious awareness
-Experiment: people were flashed two different emotional faces, happy or angry face, and then given something to drink
-Happy: drank more
-Angry: drank less
*Priming: unconscious awareness

16

LeDoux

-How certain emotions are triggered
-Low road:
-Bypasses cortex
-Thalamus--> Amygdala
-Bypasses thinking
-High Road:
-Thinking pathway
-Cortex
-Not immediate reaction
-Example of duel processing

17

LeDoux Experiment

-Fear response image is projected at a subliminal level
-Findings:
-Amygdala activated with fear image
-Neutral image had no activation
-People unaware of being show these images (Unconscious)

18

Lazarus

-Unconscious processing doesn't negate an appraisal (cognition)
-Ex: Thinking about a situation as threat vs. No threat


19

Routes of Emotion

-Event--> Appraisal--> Emotional response (Lazarus, Schachter))
-Event--> emotional response (Zajonc, LeDoux)

20

Nervous System and Embodied Emotion

-Emotional experience--> nervous system activation
-Automatic nervous system-->sympathetic nervous system
-Physiological similarities for different emotions

21

Physiological differences for emotions

-Subtle
-Finger temps and hormone secretions differ between fear and rage
-Fear and joy stimulate different facial muscles

22

Brain Circuitry

-Fear vs. Anger
-Greater Amygdala activation when mimicking fear than anger

23

Left Vs. Right Hemisphere

-Cortical distinctions between positive and negative emotions
-Left: positive
-Right: negative

24

Polygraph

-A machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies
-Measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotions
-Perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes
-Inaccurate because the same physiological responses can bring about multiple emotions