Intelligence: Modules 60 & 61 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intelligence: Modules 60 & 61 Deck (71)
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1

Intelligence

-Mental ability consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

2

Intelligence Test

-A method for assessing an individual's mental altitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores

3

Charles Spearman

-General intelligence/ g factor
-Helped develop factor analysis
-Those who score high in one area, score higher than average in other areas
-Common skill set= g factor
-Underlies all intelligent behavior
-General mental capacity expressed by a single intelligence score (controversial)

4

General Intelligence (G)

-A general intelligence factor that's according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

5

Factor Analysis

-A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (factors) on a test
-Used to identify different dimensions of performance that underly a person's total score

6

Thurstone

-Opponent to Spearman
-56 different tests to people, identified 7 clusters of primary mental abilities
-Word fluency, Comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, memory
-Did not rank people on a single scale
-Saw that people who excelled in one area excelled in others (evidence of g factor)

7

Kanazawa

-General intelligence evolved as a form of intelligence that helps people solve novel problems
-General intelligence scores correlate with individual's skills in evolutionarily familiar situations ( marrying, parenting, forming close friendships)

8

Gardner's Eight Intelligences

-Intelligence= multiple abilities that come in different packages
-Studied savant syndrome
-Evidence of multiple intelligence abilities

9

Savant Syndrome

-A condition in which a person otherwise is limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill (computation, drawing)
-Score low on intelligence tests
-Ex: Kim Peek

10

Kim Peek

-Savant with memorization ability
-9,000 books (Bible & Shakespeare)
-8-10 seconds--> memorize page
-Could not button his own shirts

11

Grit

-In psychology, passion and perseverance in pursuit of long-term goals

12

Sternberg

-Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
-Worked w/ College Board to predict collegiate success
-Intelligence is more than just traditional academic smarts, but not as fractured as Gardner proposes

13

Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

-Analytical Intelligence
-Assessed by traditional intelligence tests
-Academic problem solving
-Predicts school grades and vocational success *convergent thinking
-Creative Intelligence
-Reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas
-Inventions (divergent thinking)
-Practical Intelligence
-Everyday tasks
-Sternberg and Wagner= have a test for this
-Some divergent thinking

14

Gardner and Sternberg Agreements

-Multiple abilities--> life success
-Differing varieties of giftedness add spice to life and challenges for education

15

Social Intelligence

-Know-how involved in successfully comprehending social situations
-1st proposed by Thorndike
-Aspect of social intelligence= emotional intelligence
-Mayer, Salovey, Caruso

16

Emotional Intelligence

1.Perceiving emotions
-In faces, music, stories
2.Understanding emotions
-Predict them, how they change and blend
3.Managing emotions
-Express them in varied situations
4.Using emotions to enable adaptive/ creative thinking
-Unconscious processing
-Emotionally in tune with others
-Succeed in marriage, parenting, career
-Effected by brain damage

17

Brain Size and Complexity

- +.33 correlation between brain size and intelligence
-Frontal and parietal lobes= associated with intelligence
-Ample gray and white matter= efficient communication between brain centers
-Einstein's brain= 15% larger in lower parietal lobe region

18

Brain Function

-People contemplate a variety of questions found on intelligence tests--> frontal lobe activity
-Left brain activity for verbal questions
-Smart people use less energy in problem solving
-Verbal intelligence scores= predictable from speed at which info is drawn from memory
-Quick-witted: speed of perception and neural processing
-Correlation between intelligence score and speed of taking in perceptual info
- +.3 to +.5

19

Reification

-Abstract concept, not a thing
-Socially constructed
-Means different things to different people
*Intelligence when it is approached as tangible, it's not

20

Cattell

-Two types of intelligence
-Crystalized
-Fluid
-General intelligence is made up of cognitive ability and acquired knowledge

21

Gardner's Eight Intelligence's list

1. Intrapersonal: understanding yourself & wants
2. Interpersonal: sensing people's feelings and motivations
3. Linguistic: right words to express what we mean
4. Logical-Mathematical: quantifying things, hypotheses and proving them
5. Naturalist: Understanding living things/ nature
6. Spacial: Visualizing world in 3D
7. Bodily-Kinesthetic: Coordinating body w/ mind
8. Musical: discerning sounds, pitches, tone, rhythms, timbre
*9. Existential

22

Origins of Intelligence Testing

-Galton
-Binet
-Terman

23

Galton

-Created eugenics
-Founded Psychometrics-Measure of human abilities (intelligent, strength)
-Thought science had obligation to create best society possible
-Get rid of dumb people
-Intel= inherited, selective mating
-Encouraged people of high quality to mate
-Discouraged people of low quality to mate
-Forced sterilization

24

Binet

-1904: Hired by French school system
-Created a way to identify "special needs" for extra attention, kids who were on track, and who are on a better track
-Binet-Simon scales

25

Binet-Simon Scales

-1st modern intelligence test
-Determined mental age
-Children

26

Mental Age

-Chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance

27

Terman

-Fan of eugenics
-Stanford-Binet: widely used American revision of Binet's original test
-Applicable to adults
-Language-based: Problem if of different culture or language)

28

Intelligence Quotient

-IQ
-Created by Stern
-(Mental age/ chronological age) X 100
-Average score: 100
-People can fall above or below average

29

Modern Tests of Mental Abilities

-Achievement Test
-Aptitude Test
-WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale)

30

Achievement Test

-Designed to test what a person has learned
-Ex: mid-year exam