Unit 6 (Learning) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 6 (Learning) Deck (27)
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1

How do we learn?

-Association

2

Association

-Certain events happen together
-Conditioning= type of learning association (process)
-Ex:
-Sequential events--> 11:15 leads to lunch time
-Habits: Only smoke in certain environments or w/ certain people

3

Types of Learning

Associative learning:
-Classical Conditioning
-Operant Conditioning
Other:
-Observational Learning

4

Dog Experiment

-Classical conditioning is born
-Dogs were salivating before they ate/they were hungry
-Would know when it was meal time
-Preceded presentation of food w/ light, bell, buzzer
-Dogs learned to salivate in response to bell alone
-Ring bell and dog would eventually get fed

5

Elements of Classical Conditioning

-Unconditioned stimulus
-Unconditioned response
-Conditioned stimulus
-Conditioned response

6

Breakdown of Classical Conditioning

-UCS-->UCR (food--> salivation)
-CS + UCS---> UCR (Bell + food--> salivation)
-CS--> CR
(Bell--> salivation due to bell)

7

Taste Aversion

-Type of classical conditioning
-Learned association between taste of a certain food and feeling nausea
-One bad taste can lead to this
-Linked to survival
-Make sure we don't eat things that are poisonous/ make us sick

8

Differences between Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning

-Classical:
-Two external stimuli
-Don't need to do anything, just observe
-Operant:
-External stimuli and self
-Do something (achieve)

9

Key Figures of Classical Conditioning

-Pavlov
-Watson

10

Key Figures of Operant Conditioning

-EL Thorndike
-B.F Skinner (most famous)

11

What do consequences do?

-Increase behavior
-Decrease behavior

12

How do you decrease behavior?

-Positive punishment
-Negative Punishment

13

Positive Punishment

-Administer aversive stimulus
-Ex: speeding--> ticket

14

Negative Punishment

-Withdrawal of desirable stimulus
-Ex: speeding--> revoked license

15

Types of Scheduled Reinforcement

-Fixed ratio
-Fixed interval
-Variable ratio
-Variable interval

16

Rates of Response: Fixed Ratio

-Respond quickly w/in short amount of time, pause, respond quickly...
-Frantic high response rate
-Ex: factory jobs
*short term gain*

17

Rates of Response:Variable Ratio

-Strongest
-Do not know what response will create a reinforcement
-Respond quickly over a long period of time
-High response w/in long period of time
-Ex: dog begging (doesn't know when it will get food)

18

Rates of Response: Fixed Interval

-ex:Studying a bit and then going hardcore before a test
-Before reinforcement is when we put in most effort
-Pause post-reinforcement

19

Rates of Response: Variable Interval

-Moderately steady rate of response
-Little to no post-reinforcement pause
-High resistance to extinction

20

Punishment vs. Reinforcement

-Reinforcement works better
-Punishment:
-Appears to work better and easier, but isn't
-Only teaches what not to do, doesn't produce the alternative "right" response
-Teaches discrimination
-Learn to avoid certain behaviors in certain situations
-Learn to associate fear of punishment with punisher
-Ex: dislike school when getting in trouble often
-Physical punishment, especially with children is wrong cuz it teaches them that that is how to solve the problem

21

Skinner & Cognition

-Skinner= staunch behaviorist
-Saw no place for cognitive processes (thoughts, perceptions, expectations) in psychology

22

Motivation

-Internal things affect on learning
-Two types: Intrinsic and Extrinsic

23

Overjustification Effect

-Rewarding someone for engaging in a task they already enjoy can diminish their interest in it
-Excessive rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation
-Ex: no longer enjoy a sport because you end up doing it for trophies, college scholarships etc.

24

Biology Matters when it comes to shaping behavior

-Much easier to shape a behavior that is naturally associated with its reinforcer
-Ex: teaching pigeons to flap their wings in order to avoid being shocked
-Pigeons are used to flapping their wings to flee danger

25

Controversy and Skinner

-Said:
-External influences NOT internal processes shape behavior
-Operant conditioning everywhere!
-School: computer-based learning
-Work: productivity goals
-Home: training kids
-Rewards should be employed

26

Skinner's critics

-Humanistic psych is against Skinner
-Dehumanizing
-Takes power/ freedom away from individuals
-We shouldn't seek to control others' behavior

27

Time of Reinforcement

-Animals: 30 second deal- response won't be learned (need to react immediately)
-Humans: Can respond to delayed reinforcement (ex: paycheck, Trophy, semester grade)
-However: small, immediate consequences can be alluring (stay up late to watch tv, tired in the morning)