Unit 5 States Of Conciousness Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5 States Of Conciousness Deck (32)
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1

Types of Dependence and Addition

-Tolerance
-Withdrawal

2

Physical dependence

-Physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued

3

Psychological Dependence

-Psychological need to use drug, such as to relieve negative emotions

4

Why does withdrawal happen?

-Chemicals may stop being created in the body
-The body then thinks you don't need it to make chemicals anymore because you are providing them yourself

5

Alcohol (Effects)

-Disinhibition: Don't think of longer-term consequences (frontal lobe ins't working)
-Risky behavior
-Slower neural processing
-Memory disruption: formation of LTM during REM stage
-Korsakoff's syndrome can happen with addiction
-Reduced self-awareness and self-control
-Increase or decrease negative emotions
-Expectancy effects (placebo)
-Know what will happen with alcohol--> can cause effects

6

Korsakoff's Syndrome

-Anterograde and retrograde amnesia
-Can't remember things before or after drinking
-Confabulation
-Remembering things that didn't happen

7

Rat Study with alcohol

-Adolescent rats engaged in Binge-drinking
-What happened:
-Impairment of nerve Genesis; synaptic connections
-Difficult to regrow neurons after they die
-Contributes to nerve cell death
-Shrinks brain

8

Alcohol and Gender (Male vs. Female)

-Women have less of a stomach enzyme that digests alcohol
-Brain shrinkage is more likely to occur
-Addiction happens quicker
-Risk for lung, brain, and liver damage at lower consumption

9

Caffeine

-World's most widely consumed psychoactive substance
-Can produce both tolerance and withdrawal
-Increases anxiety levels in some people
-Some can't handle it (too jittery)

10

Effects of Cocaine

-Can increase aggression
-Emotional disturbance
-Suspiciousness of others
-Convulsions (seizures)
-Cardiac Arrest (OD)
-Respiratory failure

11

Health Risk of Ecstasy

-Short-term:
-Dehydration->> over-heating, increases blood pressure, death
-Long-term:
-Damage to serotonin-producing neurons (decreased output, permanently depressed mood)
-Suppresses immune system
-Impairs memory
-Disrupts circadian rhythms

12

Effects of Marijuana

-Intensifies anxiety, depression
-Positive correlation between use and risk of anxiety, depression, schizophrenia
-Daily use---> worst outcome
-Impairs motor coordination, perceptual skills, reaction time
-Disrupts memory formation &recall
-Heavy adult use for 20+ years associated with shrinkage of brain areas involved in memory/ emotion processing
-Smoke linked with cancer

13

States of Consciousness

-Daydreaming
-Dreaming
-Hallucinations
-Sensory deprivation
-Hypnosis
-Meditation
(Involve different levels of consciousness)

14

Sleep studies

-Able to record brain waves patterns using EEG
-Determined that brain omits different waves for different activities

15

Owls vs Larks

-20 years old--> shift rom being "evening-energized owls" to being "morning -loving larks"
-Owls performance improves as day goes on, opposite for larks

16

Typical sleep cycles

-cycle every 90 minutes
-4 to 5 cycles a night

17

Neural Activity & Sleep stages

-Characterizes our different sleep stages
-Alpha and delta waves

18

Awake Stage

-Alpha waves
-Relaxed and reflecting stage

19

Stage 1

-Slowed breathing
-Irregular brain waves
-Hallucinations
-Hypnagogic sensations (ex:feel like you are falling off a cliff)
-Brief

20

Stage 2

-20 minutes
-Marked by sleep spindles
-Bursts of brain activity
-Chills then brain activity, back to chilling

21

Stage 3

-Deep sleep
-Delta waves (deep dreamless sleep)
-30 minutes
-Associated with many sleep problems

22

Effects of Sleep Loss

-Difficulty studying
-Decreases ability to focus
-Diminished productivity
-Less productive in days after an overnighter
-Tendency to make mistakes
-issue in professions like doctors, pilots, truck drivers
-Irritability
-Snappy, easy to anger
-Fatigue
-Teenager circadian rhythms don't match with school start times

23

Stage 4 issues

-Sleepwalking/ talking
-Night terror (scream in sleep)
-Often fade post-childhood

24

Sleep paralysis

-Upon going to sleep/ waking up
-REM Atonia
-Motor neuron inhibition
-Amygdala activation
-Threat response system
-Makes the experience scary
*Conscious but cannot move

25

Lucid Dreaming

-Aware of dream state
-Activation of prefrontal cortex--> recognition of dream state

26

Why do we sleep?

-Protection
-Recuperation
-Memory Formation
-Creativity
-Growth

27

Protection

-Evolutionary
-Darkness= dangerous
-If we cannot see, there isn't a reason to be awake

28

Recuperation

-Restores and repairs brain tissue
-Repairs worn out brain tissue from previous day

29

Memory Formation

-Restores and rebuilds memories from the day
-Difficulty remembering things w/out sleep (hippocampus and LTM)

30

Creativity

-Insight post-sleep
-Able to solve problems we couldn't before
(Remembering a name, figure out solution)