Social Thinking Quiz 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Social Thinking Quiz 2 Deck (70)
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1

Conformity

-A change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagined group pressure
-Think or act like members of a group
-Negative in individualist culture

2

Solomon Asch

The Line Test
1. Informational Social Influence
2. Normative Social Influence

3

Informational Social Influence

-Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality
-People know something we don't
-Have valuable info

4

Normative Social Influence

-Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
-Price we pay for being different can be severe

5

The Line Test

-Group judged line length
-All confederates except one person
-Confederates: people acting in experiment to give blatantly wrong answer
-Person would usually conform unless someone else in the group gave same answer

6

Conditions that strengthen conformity

-One is made to feel incompetent/ insecure
-The group has at least 3 ppl
-Group is unanimous
-If one person breaks this, others will follow
-One admires group's status/ attractiveness
-One has made no prior commitment to a response
-If you state what you believe on record, more likely to follow it
-Others in the group observe one's behavior
-One's culture strongly encourages respect for social standards

7

Stanley Milgram

-If individuals would engage in risky behavior if asked by authority figure
-Obedience and shocking learners

8

Obedience is highest when...

-Person giving orders is close and legit authority
-Authority figure supported by prestigious institution
-Victim depersonalization or at a distance
-No role models for defiance

9

Social Facilitation

-Triplett
-Stronger responses on simple of well-learned tasks in the presence of others
-Ex: Race faster against a person as opposed to clock
*On tougher tasks, people perform worse when being observed
*Arousal strengthens the most likely response

10

Yerkes-Dodson Law

-Performance increases with physiological or mental arousal, but only up to a point
-Arousal is too high= performance decreases

11

Social Loafing

-Latane
-Tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

12

Deindividuation

-The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
-Less self-conscious, less restrained
-Ex: rioting, food fight
-Ex of diffusion of responsibility

13

Effects of Group Interaction

-Group polarization
-Groupthink

14

Group Polarization

-Enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion w/in the group
-When high-prejudice students disclose racial issues, they become more prejudiced

15

Group Think

-Mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
-Ex: Ill-fated Bay of pigs invasion under JFK

16

Culture and Behavior

-Each cultural group has its own norms
-Ex: personal space
-North Americans, British prefer more PS than Arabs, French

17

Norms

-Understood rule for accepted and expected behavior

18

Prejudice

-Unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
-Mixture of beliefs, emotions, and predisposition to action
-Overt vs subtle, conscious vs. unconscious

19

Stereotype

-A generalized belief about a group of people

20

Discrimination

-Unjustifiable negative BEHAVIOR toward a group and its members

21

Social roots of Prejudice

-Social inequalities--> the "haves" justify the status quo
-Us vs. Them: ingroups and outgroups provides the benefits of communal solidarity
-Ingroup Bias

22

Ingroup Bias

-The tendency to favor our own group

23

Emotional roots of Prejudice

-Facing death heightens patriotism, produces loathing towards others
-Scapegoat Theory

24

Scapegoat Theory

-The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

25

Categorization

-Cognitive root of prejudice
-Allows us to simplify the world
-Acknowledges differences in our own groups, overestimate similarity in other groups (outgroup homogeneity)
-They act/look alive, we are diverse
-Other Race Effect

26

Other-Race Effect

-Also called cross-race effect, own-race bias
-The tendency to recall faces of ones own race more accurately than faces of other races
-Emerges 3-9 months
-Reduced through increased exposure

27

Vivid Cases

-Cognitive root of prejudice
-Availability heuristic
-Influences our judgement of a group
-Vivid cases feed stereotypes

28

Just-World Phenomenon

-The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve, and deserve what they get

29

Hindsight Bias

-Story ending in rape of a woman has participants partly blaming woman's behavior
-Story ending w rape deleted, don't perceive behavior as inviting rape

30

Aggression

-Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy