Unit 1 and Unit 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1 and Unit 2 Deck (22)
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1

Introspection

-means "looking inward"
-Teaches people to report elements of experiences (usually sensory)
-Immediate sensations, feelings, images
-Unreliable because results vary from person to person, experience to experience, and it required smart, verbal people

2

Freudian Psychology

-Created by Sigmund Freud (Psychoanalysis)
-Emphasized the ways our unconscious thought processes and emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior

3

Socrates & Plato

-Mind is separable from the body (continues on after body dies)
-Knowledge is innate (born within us)

4

Aristotle

-Loved data and derived principles from logic
-Disagreed w/ Socrates and Plato: said knowledge isn't preexisting and it grows from experience stored in our memories

5

René Descartes

-Agreed with Plato & Socrates that knowledge is innate and the soul exists separately from the body
-Wondered how the immaterial mind and material body communicate
-Scientist and philosopher
-Said the fluid in the brain's cavities contained "animal spirits"
-Flowed from brain through what we now call nerves to muscles, provoking movement
-Also flowed through open pores in the brain (how memories form)








6

Francis Bacon

-Formed modern empiricism
-One of the founders of modern science (Influence lingers today)
-Fascinated with the human mind and its failings
-Stated that our beliefs are based off of when we see the belief fulfilled, but neglect its failures

7

John Locke

-British political philosopher
-Wrote a 1 page paper which led to "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding" (hundreds of pages)
-Mind at birth= tabula rasa (blank slate) on which experience writes
-Helped form modern empiricism

8

Early Schools of Psychology

-Structuralism
-Functionalism
-Behaviorism

9

Edward Bradford Titchener

-Student of Wundt
-Introduced Structuralism at Cornell University
-Aimed to discover the structural elements of the mind
-Done w/ introspection

10

Why do we use the Scientific method?

-To avoid bias
-To understand more
-Constant method: makes things easier to replicate & compare
-gives you the ability to collect data
-Allows for building upon experiments

11

Types of Research Methods

-Case Study
-Correlational method
-Naturalistic observation
-Survey
-Experimentation

12

Phineas Gage

-Ex of a case study
-Spike shot through his skull but didn't die (could still function)
-Before, he was a calm, agreeable person
-Afterwards: quick to anger, alcoholic, major personality changes
-1st time psychologists realized brain controlled behavior (not sure that this point)

13

Overconfidence

-Being overly sure of an answer
-Humans tend to be more confident than correct
-Leads us to overestimate our intuition

14

Perceiving Order of Random Events

-Humans are prone to perceive patterns because of our eagerness to make sense of the world
-Everything is equally likely or unlikely to happen
-Leads us to overestimate our intuition

15

Curiousity

-A passion to explore and understand w/o misleading or being misled
-Psychologists use curious skepticism to approach the world of behavior
-Make modern science possible

16

Skepticism

-Doubt as to the truth of something
-Psychologists use curious skepticism to approach the world of behavior
-Make modern science possible

17

Humility

-An awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives
-Makes modern science possible

18

Descriptive Methods

-Describe behaviors, often by using case studies, surveys, or naturalistic oberservations

19

Ethics of Experimentation

-Created by the APA:
-Confidentiality: Don't release your name of info
-Debriefing
-Informed consent
-Limit Risk
-Treat animals humanely

20

Histogram

-A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution

21

Collectivist Culture

-Emphasize group goals

22

Individualist Culture

-Put priority on individual goals