Personality Unit 10 (X) Flashcards Preview

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1

Personality

-An individual's unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persist over time and across situations

2

Sigmund Freud

-Father of psychoanalysis
-Started as a medical doctor
-Had patients with physical ailments he could not find a physical cause for
-Maybe physical problems= manifestation of unaware occurrences
-Leads to study of the unconscious mind

3

Unconscious mind

-Reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories
-Higher mind= tip of iceberg= conscious
-Thoughts we are aware of
-Iceberg under water= unconscious mind
-Sexual urges, largest driving factor

4

Methods of Psychoanalysis

-Free association
-Hypnosis
-Dream Analysis

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Free association

-Individual freely responds to stimuli
-1st thing that comes to mind w/ word or picture

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Hypnosis

-Way to get unconscious mind to forefront
-Doesn't work

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Dream analysis

-Best method
-Have someone report dream and interpret them

8

Personality Structures

-Concept about different elements involved in personality
-Id, Ego, Superego

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Id

-Part of mind, purely unconscious
-Selfish
-Driven by whatever happens in the present (Pleasure principle)
-Motivated by aggressive, carnal tendencies
-Part of personality that wants what it wants now (present oriented)
-Impulsive (doesn't think about consequences)
-Truest self is what the Id wants
-Most people= Id driven

10

Ego

-Mediator
-Contemplates what the Id wants, takes input from the superego, and makes a decision that is best for the real world
-Operates on the reality principle
-We live in the real word= consequences
-Compromises (is there a way I can act this out?)

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Superego

-Ideal principle
-All internalized values and ideals (uptight)
-Sense of pride when we do what is right
-Doesn't listen to Id (always in conflict)

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Id, ego, and superego at work

-At work all the time
-Ego= under constant stress (taking both sides)
-All work done unconsciously
-Decision= conscious
-Some people= more id driven, superego driven, or balanced (ego)

13

Fixation

-Experiences in each psychosexual stage shape development (determine adulthood)
-Too much/too little gratification at a certain stage= some sexual energy becomes tied in that stage
-Def: Partial or complete halt in the individual's psychosexual development

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Oral Stage

-Birth-->18 months
-Pleasure comes from sucking, biting, chewing, swallowing
-Too much: overly optimistic, gullible, dependent adults
-Too little: pessimistic, sarcastic, argumentative, hostile adults

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Anal Stage

-18 months--> 3.5 years
-Primary source of sexual pleasure shifts from mouth to anus
-Toilet training occurs
-Too strict= anal retentive
-Obstinate, stingy, excessively orderly

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Phallic Stage

-After age 3
-Discovers genitals
-Develop a preference for parent of opposite sex, jealous of same sex parent (Oedipus/Electra complex)
-Resolved by identifying w/ same sex parent
-Living through their parent and adopting their values
-Fixation: vanity, egotism or low self-esteem, shyness, worthlessness

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Phallic Stage Problems

-Castration anxiety= fear of father's actions for desiring mother
-Penis envy= feeling of inferiority, anger at mother for her apparent cassation due to desiring father

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Latency Period

-Appears to have no interest in opposite sex
-Ages 5/6--> 12/13
-Boys hang with boys, girls with girls

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Genital Stage

-At puberty
-Sexual impulses reawaken
-Gratification--> mature sexuality, sense of responsibility, caring for others
-How to relate to others, caring, empathy

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Critics of Freud

-Some say he is too male-centric
-Developed theory with men in mind, added women as afterthought
-Questions whether genders developed along same lines

21

Defense Mechanism

-How ego protects against anxiety
-Anxiety is the product of the inner war between id and superego
-Allow the ego to reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting reality

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Repression

-Banishes troublesome things from consciousness
-Repressed things seep out in dream symbols and slip of the tongue

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Regression

-Retreats to an earlier, more infantile stage of development
Ex: 1st day of college--> want mom

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Reaction Formation

-Ego unconsciously switches impulses into their opposites
-People may express feelings that are opposite of their anxiety- arousing unconscious feelings
-Ex: I hate him--> I love him

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Stockholm Syndrome

-Phenomenon where kidnapped victim or hostage "falls in love" with the feared and hated person who has complete power over them
-Ex of Reaction formation

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Projection

-Disguises threatening impulses by attributing them to others
-Ex: Projecting "he doesn't trust me" to "I don't trust him"

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Rationalization

-Unconsciously generate self-justifying explanations to hide from ourselves the real reasons for our actions
-Ex: alcoholics say they drink w/ friends to be sociable

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Displacement

-Diverts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable/ less threatening object or person, redirecting anger to safer outlet
-Ex: angry at parent, take it out on sibling

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Denial

-People refuse to believe or perceive painful realities
-Ex: denying evidence that spouse is cheating on you

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NeoFreudians (How it agreed with Freud)

-Psychodynamic got it's start w/ this movement
-Accepted Freud's basic ideas
-Id, ego, superego= at work
-Unconscious (anxiety, defense mechanisms)
-Personality shaped by childhood