Modules 42,43,44 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Modules 42,43,44 Deck (50)
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1

Nonverbal Communication

-Best at deciphering negative emotions
-Especially quick to note anger (evolutionary)

2

Experience Sensitizes Us

-Child victims of abuse are more likely to perceive anger emotions

3

Key Areas for Nonverbals

-Eyes and Mouth
-Used to determine emotions

4

MicroExpressions

-Brief, fleeting involuntary facial expressions
-Studied by Paul Ekman
-Emotional detection
-How cultures express emotions

5

Duchenne Smile vs Feigned Smile

-Feigned= fake
-Duchenne= under eye activation, real

6

Gender and Emotion Experiment

-Is one gender more emotionally expressive than the other?
-Show pictures of people in depress
-Women= more likely to express overt concern
-Same physiological arousal for both genders
-Men= taught to suppress emotions

7

Gender and Emotions

-Women react w/ greater emotion to self-generated thoughts/memories
-Ruminate/dwell
-In a hypothetical situation involved with friend betrayal
-Men=anger and external (substance abuse)
-Women= sadness and internal (depression)

8

Gender Interpretation

-Women are better at reading nonverbals
-Evolutionary, primary care givers for infants (need to know if something is wrong)
-Women have greater "emotional literacy"
-Varied vocabulary when talking about feelings
-Men don't talk about their feelings

9

Expectations in Gender Emotions

-Women linked with overall emotionality
-Men specifically linked with anger

10

Universal Emotions

-Facial expressions
-Studied by Paul Ekman and Izard
-Believed that there are universal emotions and facial emotions
-Studied isolated tribes
-Universal: Joy, anger, sadness, surprise, fear, disgust, contempt

11

Display rules

-Culture specific rules that govern how, when, and why expressions of emotion are appropriate
-Experiment: viewed graphic surgical footage in the presence and absence of an observer
-Americans: Were visibly grossed out regardless of professor's presence (Individualists)
-Japanese: No reaction w/ professor, grossed out without professor (collectivist--> bad to show emotions)

12

The effects of facial expressions

-When facial expressions are manipulated, like when furrowing brows, people feel more sad while looking at sad pictures
-Facial Feedback

13

Behavioral Feedback

-Sara Snodgrass: Posture and walking impacts mood, confidence
-Good posture: people felt good
-Bad posture: felt bad

14

Depression and Botox

-When individuals with depression were given Botox, their facial muscles were in a smiling position
-Felt happier/ improved depression

15

Stress

-The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors
-Appraise as threatening or challenging
-Appraisal of event= stress experience (Lazarus)

16

Short-Lived Stress

-When stress is short lived and seen as challenging:
-Overcoming obstacles boosts self-esteem
-Mobilizes immune system
-Self-efficacy: confidence through competence

17

Long-Lasting Stres

-Harmful
-PTSD: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
-Elevated disease rates
-Especially heart

18

Walter-Cannon

-Stress Response system
-Fight or flight
-Stay and fight, mobilize resources OR
-Avoid problem

19

Epinephrine

-Activated by stress
-Quick
-Immediately mobilizes resources

20

Cortisol

-Activated by stress
-Slow
-Builds up over time

21

Alternatives to Fight or Flight

-Withdrawal- freeze, save resources
-Males tend to do so
-Tending and Befriending

22

Hans Selye

-Studies of animals’ reactions to various stressors, such as electric shock and surgery,
-General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

23

Amy Cuddy

-Studied behavioral feedback
-Power posing= effective

24

Facial Feedback Effect

-The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness

25

Health Psychology

-A subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine

26

Tend and Befriend Response

-Under stress, people (especially women) often provide support to others (tend) and bond with and seek support from others (befriend)
-Shelley Taylor
-May be due to oxytocin

27

Psychophysiological Illness

-Literally "mind-body" illness
-Any stress-related physical illness
-Hypertension or some headaches

28

Psychoneuroimmunology

-The study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health

29

Lymphocytes

-The two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system

30

Coronary Heart Disease

-The clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle
-Leading cause of death in many developing countries