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1

3 Major Issues of Developmental Psych

-Nature vs. Nurture
-Continuity vs. Stages
-Stability vs. Change

2

Nature vs. Nurture

Nature: Genes impact
Nurture: Experiences, experimental and developmental AFTER birth
-How do the two interact?
-At every prenatal stage, both genes and environment play a role
-Teratogens

3

Continuity vs. Stages

-Continuity: Change and development is a gradual, continual process
-Stages: We progress through specific moments (sequence of separate stages)
-Ex: Puberty= stage

4

Stability vs. Change

-Stability: Do our early traits persist throughout life in same person?
-Change: Do we become different people as we age?

5

Prenatal Development

-conception --> birth
-Zygote: Fertilized egg
-Fewer than 1/2 survive beyond 1st 2 weeks
-Go through Fallopian tubes and attaches to uterine wall
-Zygote--> Embryo--> Fetus

6

Milestones

-1st 2 weeks: cell differentiation begins
-9 weeks: embryo looks human (now a fetus)
-6 months:
-Organs develop enough to give a preemie change at survival
-Fetus responds to sound
-Newborns prefer the sound of mom's voice (familiar)

7

Newborn Reflexes

-Reflex: automatic things they do from birth (nature)
-Rooting Reflex
-Startle (Moro) Reflex
-Grasping Reflex
-Stepping Reflex

8

Rooting Reflex

-Touch baby's cheek and it will turn in that direction and make a sucking motion
-Thinks it is feeding time

9

Startle (Moro) Reflex

-Moves limbs out and then in when they feel like they are falling

10

Grasping Reflex

-Reflexive action to close their hand around things in their hand
-Theory: trying to get people to pay attention to them

11

Stepping Reflex

-Exaggerated stepping motion in the air

12

Imitation

-Babies imitate/mimic basic facial expressions
-Ex: stick tongue out at baby--> baby will stick tongue out

13

Infant Experiments

-What can babies sense, perceive, recognize?
-Infant Perception Lab:
-Look at objects more in the video when they have on Velcro gloves
-Babies usually look at faces

14

Novelty Preference

-Habituated someone to one stimulus
-Present over and over till bored of it
-Present a new stimuli... Which response is more novel?
-New stimuli: slightly different or present two new and let person choose which is more interesting
-Novel: What is more interesting or what stimuli can babies discriminate
-Ex: babies can discriminate between lemur faces
-Like: faces, things that look like eyes, things 8-10" away, speech (especially mom's), prefer smell of mom

15

Physical Development of Brain

-We grow new neural connections as adult, not new neurons (have a lifetime supply from birth)
-Newborns:
1 month: neural networks are forming rapidly
9 months to 2years: most rapid growth in frontal lobes (3-6 years)
-FL Gives ability to control impulses starting around this age
2 years to adult:
-Neural pruning process post-puberty
-Association areas start to form

16

Sense of Self and Scale Error

-Examples of silly mistakes children make
-Sense of self: aware that our body is part of ourself
-Scale Error: Unaware of the size of ourself compared to other things

17

Ex of Assimilate vs Accomodate

-Child knows what a horse is, sees a zebra, and thinks it is a horse (assimilation)
-Adult tells child that it is a zebra, and creates a new Schema (accomodation)

18

Piaget's Stages of Development

1.Sensorimotor
2. Pre-operational
3. Concrete Operational
4. Formal Operational

19

Social Development

-Looks at relationships and how they are formed

20

Contact Comfort

-Most important cause of attachment
-Causes growth
-Attachment figures give a sense of security and courage to explore the environment

21

Familiarity

-Who provides contact comfort the most often
-Imprinting

22

Secure Attachment

-Parent is there for them dependably
-Child trusts caregiver
-Uses parent as secure home base to explore environment
-Outward signs: Shows distress when caregiver leaves room, when caregiver comes back the child is easily soothed

23

Insecure Attachment

-Parent is there for them sometimes (not dependable)
-Outward signs: Very upset when parent leaves, difficult to calm down, or baby doesn't care whether parent leaves or not, or avoids parent (holds a grudge)

24

Parenting Styles

-Authoritarian
-Permissive
-Authoritative

25

Authoritarian

-Set rules and expect obedience ("because I said so")
-Exceptions for child behavior
-Hierarchy (parents--> children)
-Children can become overly dependent
-Cannot make decisions for themselves

26

Permissive

-Permit everything (Little to no rules)
-Children make decisions
-No consequences for actions
-Children become impulsive

27

Authoritative

-Have rules and expectations, but are open to compromise
-Listen to child's views and explain their own
-Parents make ultimate decision
-Best because: children become self-reliant, have good self esteem, and social competence (Determined by Diane Baumrind)

28

Early Onset: Boys and Girls

-Triggers growth and strength, which is correlated with popularity, self-assurance, and independence (Guys)
-Stressful for girls especially if first in their class to mature
-Drugs, alcohol, sex early (risky behavior)

29

Neural Development in Adolesence

-Frontal lobes still developing
-Myelin growth
-Leads to improved judgement, impulse control, and planning
-Limbic system developing (emotions)
-Hormonal changes
-Impulsivity, risky behavior, emotional storms against frontal lobes

30

What developmental stage are adolescents in?

-Piaget's Formal Operational--> con contemplate big ideas