Mid-Year Exam (Units 1,2,3,4,5,6,9) Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology (Class) > Mid-Year Exam (Units 1,2,3,4,5,6,9) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mid-Year Exam (Units 1,2,3,4,5,6,9) Deck (374)
Loading flashcards...
1

Mirror Neurons

-Frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
-The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy

2

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

-A pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythms
-In response to light, causes the pineal gland to adjust melatonin production, thus modifying our feelings of sleepiness

3

Self-control

-The ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards

4

Mary Ainsworth

-Did "strange situation" experiment to study attachment types (secure vs insecure)
-60% of infants display secure attachment
-Observed mother-infant pairs whose child was 6 months old, then observed at 1 year in strange situation

5

Assimulation

-Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

6

Y Chromosome

-The sex chromosome found only in males
-When paired with an X chromosome from the mother produces a male child

7

Generalization

-The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

8

Naturalistic Observation

-Observation of people or animals in their natural environments without interference from observer
-Behavior is not artificial (how they behavior in real world situations)

9

Carl Rogers

-First humanistic psychologist
-Behaviorism and Freudian psych= too limiting
-Drew attention to ways that current environmental influences can nurture or limit potential growth, and the importance of having our needs of love and acceptance satisfied

10

Functionalism

-Early school of thought promoted by William James (founder) and Charles Darwin
-Explored how mental and behavioral processes function
-How they enable the organism to flourish, adapt, and survive

11

Epigenetics

-The study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change

12

Random Assignment

-Seen in experimentation
-How we allocate people to control or experimental group
-Done to avoid two drastically different groups (therefore we can predict if differences are from variables)

14

Neurotransmitters

-Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
-When released by a sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron
- influence whether a neuron will generate a neural impulse

15

Zygote

-The fertilized egg
-Enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

16

Sensorimotor Stage

-Piaget's Theory
-The stage from birth to about 2 years
-Infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activites

17

Alcohol Use Disorder

-Alcoholism
-Alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal, and a drive to continue problematic use

18

Control Group

-Normal group
-Used as comparison to experimental group (Nothing done to it)

19

Law of Effect

-Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

21

Fetus

-The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

22

AIDS

-A life-threatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
-Depletes the immune system, leaving the person vulnerable to infections

23

Testing Effect

-Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information
-Sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning

24

Maturation

-Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

25

Attachment

-An emotional tie with another person
-Shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

26

Object Permanence

-The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
-Sensorimotor Stage

27

Psychology

-The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
-Behavior: anything an organism does (yelling, smiling, laughing)
-Mental processes: Internal (sensations, thoughts, dreams)

28

Cognitive Psychology

-The Scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

29

MRI

-Shows what the brain looks like (soft tissue only)
-Does not show what it is doing/function

30

Conditioned Reinforcer

-A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
-also know as a secondary reinforcer

31

Margaret Harlow

-Bred monkeys for attachment experimentation w/ husband
*Info on his card*

32

Peripheral Nervous System

-Carry info to and from Central Nervous System
-Made up of sensory (Afferent) and motor (efferent) neurons
-Carries out commands from CNS