Memory Unit 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Memory Unit 7 Deck (80)
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1

Information Processing Model

1. Encode- get info into our memory system/process
2. Store- Keeping the info around
3. Retrieve- using/looking at the info

2

Encoding (Dual Track)

Types:
-Automatic processing
-Effortful processing

3

Automatic Processing

-Don't need to do work to process
-Ex: Spacial relationships, time (sequences), frequency (things that repeat), well-learned information (language, numbers)
-Whenever you look at language or numbers, you automatically read them

4

Effortful Processing

-Rehearsal: conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or encode it for storage
Types: Rote/ maintenance (repeat verbatim), elaborative (elaborate on info)

5

Ebbinghaus

-studied nonsense syllables
-Retention curve and forgetting curve
-As rehearsal increases, relearning time decreases (negative correlation)

6

Cramming/Massed practice

-Bad
-Speedy short-term learning/ feelings of confidence
-Does not yield long-term recall

7

Spacing Effect

-Good
-Distributed study time leads to better long-term recall

8

Testing effect

-Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information

9

Imagery/Mnemonic Devices

-Improve memory marginally
-Imagery: mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing
-Mnemonic device: learning technique that aids memory retention
-Acronyms
-Method of location (loci)

10

Types of Effortful processing

-Depends on how we process information
-Types:
-Shallow encoding/processing
-Deep encoding/ processing

11

Crack and Tulving

-Looked at differences between types of processing
-The way you encode information would change your ability to recall info at a later date
-Set up an experiment where they could control the way a person processed information
-Used semantic (best- deep), acoustic( 2nd best somewhat shallow), and visual (3rd best-shallow) processing
-If we can encode based on what something means, yields the best recall at later date

12

Serial Position Effect

-Tendency to recall items at the beginning and end of a list better than the items in the middle
-Position things one after another

13

Primacy Effect

-Tendency to recall items at the beginning of list
-Nothing else has crowded our memory system- full attention

14

Recently Effect

-Tendency to recall items at the end of a list
-Freshest in our mind
-Haven't had time to leave memory yet

15

Rehearsal

-Autoencode repetition of remembering things (frequency)

16

Semantic distinctiveness

-Words or items that are different in meaning we notice
-Ex: artichoke in the list of sleep-related words

17

Constructed memory

-Encode based on meaning/gist
-Details get lost--> false memories form

18

Atkinson and Shiffrin

-How we encode, store, and retrieve
-Model of memory, different ways and places memory is stored
-External event--> sensory --(encoding [attention needed])-> STM/Working memory--encoding-> LTM
-When info goes from LTM to STM/WM, we are retrieving

19

Sensory Memory

-Immediate, very brief recording of sensory info in the memory system
-Entry point for raw info from the senses
-Types: Iconic and Acoustic/ echoic
-Recording in sensory registers--> lost forever or sent to STM/WM (have to be paying attention)

20

Iconic

-Studied by Sperling
-We do have this very brief recording of visual info- 1 to 2 seconds
-Showed participants letters flashed on a screen (millisecond)
-Played a different tone that corresponds with a row- people can remember the row if tone happened within a few seconds

21

Acoustic/ Echoic

-Very brief sound memory (3 to 4 seconds) that can occur even if attention is elsewhere
-Communication is sound-based
-Therefore lasts more than iconic

22

Sensory-> STM/WM

-Attention
-Need to move info from sensory to STM/MN

23

Short-Term Memory

-Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten
-Holding area- work to keep it there (rehearsal)
-Ex: remembering phone #s until you don't need it anymore

24

Working Memory

-Updated understanding of STM stage
-Involves conscious, active processing of incoming info, and of info retrieved from LTM

25

Active Stage

-Lots of stuff going into WM
-Sending info to the LTM but retrieving it from there as well (how we encode info/ make connections)
-Bi-directional flow

26

Capacity of STM/WM

-Approximately 7 items
-How we cluster info can increase/decrease this

27

Chunking

-Taking individual units and grouping them into larger units
-Can help if more into STM/WM

28

Long Term Memory

-Limitless
-Relatively permanent storehouse of memory
-Building meaning to encode it property for LTM
-Types: Explicit and Implicit

29

Where is memory stored?

-Everywhere
-Lashley
-Taught rats how to navigate mazes so that they remembered it, then removed parts of the brain
-Whatever part he removed, it affected memory
-What mattered was how much of the brain was removed--> neural connections are affected

30

Explicit vs Implicit

-2 track storage
-Also called Declarative vs. Nondeclarative
-Easily expressed vs experienced
-Recall on command, easily verbalized vs. more body based, actions
-Use different brain structures