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Flashcards in Sensation And Perception Deck (49)
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1

Necker Cube

-Cannot hold 2 competing perceptions simultaneously
-Brain picks which perception to see
-Cannot see the cube in all ways @ the same time

2

Prosopagnosia

-Face blindness
-Example of how sensation can happen without perception
-Can see faces (sensation) but cannot recognize them (perception)

3

Types of Processing

-How we arrive at perception
-Top-down
-Bottom-up

4

Basic Principles of Sensation

-Energy stimulates sensory receptor cell (different forms depending on what sense)
-Receptor cells uniquely suit organism
-Use specialized neural pathways (only communicate a single sensation)
-Receptor cell--> sensory neuron
-If stimulus is strong enough (meets/exceeds threshold), receptor cell sends message to sensory neuron
-Sensory neuron--> cortex
-Info communicated to appropriate area of cortex for processing (thalamus) to lobes

5

Variations in Sensation

-# of neurons firing
-Which neurons are activated/inhibited
-rate @ which they fire
-NOT DUE TO INTENSITY OF A SINGLE NEURON FIRING
-all-or-one principle

6

Light waves

-Waves have different:
-Amplitude: high of wave
-Determines brightness/ intensity (higher= brighter and vice versa)
-Wave length
-Distance between waves
-Determines color/hue

7

Cornea

-Outer-covering of the eye
-Function: to protect the eye

8

Types of photoreceptors

-Rods
-cones

9

Blindsight

-Rare neurological disorder where cannot consciously see, but feature receptors work (can identify motion, colors etc)
-Emphasizes parallel processing (visual info is handled consciously and unconsciously)

10

Color Blindness

-Person is color-deficient
-Lack one or more types of cones

11

After-Image Affect

-Tire neural response to a certain color, so see opposite
-Supports opponent-process theory

12

Visual Organization

-"Gestalt": form or whole
-Clusters of sensations are grouped together
-The whole exceeds the sum of its part

13

Gestalt Principles/ Form perception

-Figure and ground
-Grouping *makes outlier stand out*
-Proximity
-Continuity
-Closure
-Similarity
-Connectedness
-An organized whole
-Emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes

14

Depth Perception cues

-Binocular cues
-Monocular cues

15

Types of Constancy

*How constant visuals are
-Shape
-Size
-Color/brightness

16

Shape constancy

-Able to see shapes despite changing angles

17

Size constancy

-Size remains constant even when something is closer or farther away and visual size is changing

18

Sound Waves

-Amplitude: volume (higher=louder and vice versa)
-frequency(how many times wave passes though a given point)= pitch (how high or low something sounds)
-lower pitch= long wavelength= lower frequency
-Higher pitch= short wavelength= higher frequency

19

Echolocation

-Uses sound waves to navigate environment
-Bats and Dolphins

20

Steps of sound waves passing though the ear

1. Funneled into cartilage of outer ear (pinna)
-Captures sound waves and move to ear canal
2.Eardrum (stretched skin)
-Vibrates in response to sound waves
3. Middle ear (Ossicles)
-Hammer
-Anvil
-Stirrup (attached to oval window)
-Capture vibrations and send them through the oval window to cochlea
4.Cochlea
-Where transduction occurs

21

Hair cells in ear

-Activated by movement of basilar membrane
-Damage accounts for most hearing loss
-Hair cells produce neural info and send to adjacent cells
-Activate nerve cells whose axons converge to auditory nerve

22

Volume

-Number of hair cells activated
-Waves with more amplitude activate more hair cells and vice versa

23

Sound localization

-The ability to identify the location a sound is coming from (close, far, left, right)
-Monaural vs binaural cues

24

Monaural cues

-One ear
-Changes in volume
-Closer or farther from something

25

Binaural Cues

-2 ears
-Comparison
-Volume
-Timing
-Sound to your left ear will hit left ear 1st and be louder, then hit right ear and be softer

26

Pitch Discrimination Theories

-What allows ears to record wavelength and determine pitch
-Place theory
-Frequency theory
-Work together to discriminate pitches

27

Issue w/ Frequency Theory

-Single neuron can't fire faster than 1,000 times per second (refractory period)
-Some sound waves travel faster than this

28

Solution to Frequency Theory

-Volley principle
-Neural cells in cochlea alternate firing- team up
-Neurons can fire in rapid successions and achieve a combined frequency
-How it can explain high and low pitches

29

Taste

-Different types of taste
-Not on distinct "zones"
-Serve an evolutionary purpose

30

Sweet

-Presence of sugar--> energy source