Memory Part 2 Unit 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Memory Part 2 Unit 7 Deck (41)
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1

Concepts

-Mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
-Way our mind understands things that have stuff in common, come up with a category for them
-Ex: Chairs--> types of chairs

2

Concept Formation

1.Definition
2. Prototype

3

Definition

-Defining something
-Ex: Triangle--> has 3 sides, geometric shape

4

Prototype

-Mental image or best example of a category
-Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories
-Ex: typical idea of a bird= robin

5

Problem Solving Strategies

1. Trial and Error
2. Algorithms
3. Heuristics
4. Insight

6

Trial and Error

-Try out a few things and see what works
-ex: keys--> which one opens the lock (try the keys)

7

Algorithms

-Methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
-Ex: equations, recipes

8

Heuristics

-Simple thinking strategy that often allows use to make judgements and solve problems efficiency
-Rule of thumb--> doesn't always work
-Ex: want to know how many students go to Feehan, count how many people enter during the day

9

Compare and Contrast of Trial and Error, Algorithms, and Heuristics

-Trial and error useful when only a few options
-Heuristics are speedier, yet more prone to error than algorithms
-Ex: searching entire house for keys or only the places they would most likely be

10

Insight

-Sudden, and often novel, realization of the solution to a problem
-Cannot be employed

11

Wolfgang Kohler

-Ex of insight
-Sultan could not get the banana with the short stick in the cage, but realized he could use the stick to get the longer stick, which could reach the banana
-Shows that animals have insight

12

Obstacles to Problem Solving

-Confirmation Bias
-Mental Set
-Fixation
-Functional Fixedness

13

How do we make decisions and form judgements?

-Representative Heuristic
-Availability Heuristic
-Overconfidence
-Belief Perseverance Phenomenon
-Framing

14

Confirmation Bias

-A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and ignore or distort contradictory evidence
-Tend to look for things that confirm our beliefs
-EX: Girl thinks boy is cute and nice, only sees him doing good, not bad
-Applied to problem solving: we have difficulty finding right answers when we look for evidence supporting an opinion

15

Fixation

-The inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set

16

Mental Set

-Tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
-Ex: pushing a door when u are used to pushing, but it is a pull door

17

Functional Fixedness

-The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual function
-Impediment to problem solving

18

Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman

-Studied our nack for using heuristics
-Won a Nobel Prize

19

Representativeness Heuristic

-Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes
-May lead us to ignore other relevant information
-Ex: soft spoken, short man who likes poetry--> professor or truck driver
-We think professor but it is more likely that it is a truck driver
-Tend to make a lot of mistakes when we judge anything based on this

20

Availability Heuristic

-Estimating the likely hood of events based on their availability in memory
-If instances come readily to mind (Perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
-Ex: more people are afraid of riding in planes that cars because more horrific plane crashes come to mind

21

Overconfidence

-The tendency to be more confident than correct
-To over-estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements
-Reason why we can believe very strongly in somethings and be wrong
-Ex: spelling tasks--> spell new words and rate confidence
-Correct 80% of time, but 100% confident in answers (20% overconfidence)

22

Belief Perseverance Phenomenon

-Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
-When we believe in something, difficult to change
-Ex: people who were for or against death penalty read articles on how death Pentax does and does not defer crime
-Are not swayed, but instead beliefs become stronger

23

Framing

-The way an issue is posed
-Can significantly affect decisions and judgements
-Ex: medical procedure
-80% chance of life vs 20% chance of death
-80% makes them more likely to do the procedure than death

24

Creativity

-The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

25

Creativity meets intelligence

-IQ above 120 seems to support creativity
-Two types of thinking: convergent and divergent

26

Convergent Thinking

-Assessed by traditional IQ tests
-Narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution
-Left parietal lobe

27

Divergent Thinking

-Expands the number of possible problem solutions
-Creative thinking that diverges in different directions
-Frontal lobes

28

Sternberg

-5 Components of Creativity
1.Expertise: know what you're talking about to get solution
2. Imaginative thinking skills
3. A venturesome personality: take risks and react to obstacles
4. Intrinsic motivation
5. A creative environment: able to go off in your own time

29

Language

-Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

30

Phoneme

-In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
-40 in English, but 800 in existence
-We have the ability when born to acquire any type of language, goes away with age (why foreigners struggle with English)
-Ex: bat--> 3 phonemes (b, a, t)
-Ex: chat--> 3 phonemes (ch, a, t)