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Flashcards in Nutrients in Immunity Deck (58)
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1

What are the 4 major components of the immune system?

1. Skin
2. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT)
3. White blood cells (WBCs)
4. Lymphoid tissue

2

What is a nearly continuous barrier to invading pathogens?

Skin

3

What are the 2 main types of white blood cells (WBCs)?

1. Phagocytes
2. T and B cells

4

Which type of white blood cell ingests and digests pathogens?

Phagocytes

5

Which type of white blood cell is a lymphocyte that recognizes specific pathogens and mounts immune responses?

T and B cells

6

What are the 3 lymphoid tissues in the body?

1. Bone marrow
2. Thymus
3. Spleen

7

Which lymphoid tissue produces immune stem cells?

The bone marrow

8

Which lymphoid tissue is the location of T cell maturation?

The thymus

9

Which lymphoid tissue has an abundance of macrophages?

The spleen

10

What percentage of the immune system does the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) make up?

70%

11

What is an anti-bacteria agent?

Lysozyme

12

What does the skin secrete?

Lysozyme

13

Which lymphoid tissue is the site of B cell maturation?

The bone marrow

14

Which lymphoid tissue clears damaged RBCs?

The spleen

15

What are rapidly dividing cells in the body?

Immune cells

16

Which nutrients are needed to maintain immune cells?

Protein, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12 and iron

17

Which 2 vitamins work together to regulate gene expression in immune cells?

Vitamin D and vitamin A

18

Which vitamin promotes immune cell division?

Vitamin D

19

Why are antioxidants important to the health of WBCs?

They protect the oxidizing agents that kill pathogens

20

True vitamin A is only found in what type of food?

Animal food

21

What is the molecule that is found in plant foods that can be converted to vitamin A?

Carotenoids

22

How effective is the conversion of carotenoids?

Not effective

23

What are animal sources of true vitamin A?

Liver, egg yolks and full fat dairy

24

What are plant sources of true vitamin A?

Carrots and sweet potatoes

25

What percentage of carotenoids is effectively converted in true vitamin A?

10%

26

What does vitamin A help skin cells become?

Mature, functional cells

27

What does Vitamin A deficiency cause?

The breakdown of protective barriers

28

Why is vitamin A referred to as the “anti-infection” vitamin?

It supports the activity of T cells to fight off bacteria and it improves vaccine efficacy

29

What is the role of zinc in immunity?

It's vital for WBC formation and function

30

What are 3 other functions of zinc in the body?

1. DNA synthesis and function
2. Protein metabolism, wound healing, growth
3. Development of sexual organs and bones