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Flashcards in Antioxidants Deck (38)
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1

What occurs when molecules lose electrons?

Oxidation

2

What sometimes happens when oxygen oxidizes a molecule?

The molecule becomes a free radical

3

What is an atom or molecule containing an unpaired electron?

Free radical

4

What is the common oxidizing agent that can become a free radical?

Oxygen

5

What occurs when molecules gain electrons ?

Reduction

6

Are free radicals always bad?

No

7

Which cells use free radicals as a chemical defense?

Immune cells

8

What are the 2 reasons why the overproduction of free radicals is problematic?

1. It causes a chain reaction of free radical formation
2. It can damage cellular structures

9

Which cellular structure is the most damaged by free radicals?

The cell membrane

10

What is the free radical theory of aging?

The more free radicals you have the faster you are going to age

11

What 6 other diseases are thought to be causes, in part, by free radicals?

1. Macular degeneration
2. Cardiovascular disease
3. Cancer
4. Alzheimer's disease
5. Parkinson's disease
6. All inflammatory diseases (arthritis and lupus)

12

How does the body control the production of free radicals?

It uses defenses

13

What 2 things does the body use to keep free radicals under control?

Enzymes and Antioxidants

14

What are chemicals derived from food?

Antioxidants

15

Are the most antioxidant vitamins found in plants or animals?

Plants

16

Why is vitamin E found at high levels in certain plant foods?

Plants deal with a lot of UV light

17

Which tissues in the body have high levels of vitamin E?

Red blood cells and lung tissue

18

Why do red blood cells and lung tissue have high levels of vitamin e?

They are exposed to a lot of light

19

What are the main dietary sources of vitamin E?

Plant seed oils (canola, corn, soybean), olive oil, spinach, eggs yolks, nuts, avocado

20

What are the 2 roles of vitamin C in the body?

1. Readily accepts and donates vitamin E
2. Aids in the reactivation of vitamin E

21

What are the main dietary sources of vitamin C?

Citrus fruits, strawberries, green peppers, cauliflower, broccoli, whale skin and other organ meats

22

What deficiency results from inadequate vitamin C intake?

Scurvy

23

What are the symptoms of scurvy?

Pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin, fatigue, bleeding gums, joint pain, wounds that would not heal

24

Which people were the first to get scurvy?

Sailors

25

How was scurvy cured?

Citrus fruits (lemons)

26

What are phytochemicals with health-promoting properties?

Carotenoids

27

Which carotenoid can be converted into vitamin A in the body?

Beta-carotene

28

What contains carotenoids?

Plants

29

What are some problem with getting vitamin A solely from this carotenoid?

Low rates of absorption and conversion

30

What are 3 other carotenoids that have health benefits?

Lycopene, Zeaxanthin, and Lutein