Nutrients in Bone Health Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nutrients in Bone Health Part 1 Deck (65)
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1

What is the thick, fibrous vascular membrane that covers bone surface?

Periosteum

2

What bone is the strong, dense outer layer of bone that provides structure and support?

Cortical bone

3

What bone is strong but not so rigid due to lattice structure?

Trabecular bone

4

What percentage of the adult bone is the cortical bone?

80%

5

What percentage of the adult bone is the trabecular bone?

20%

6

What is a spongy tissue that contains stem cells?

Bone marrow

7

What are cells that can produce bone, cartilage and fat called?

Stromal

8

What is a dynamic tissue?

Bone

9

What is the continuous process of bone degradation and synthesis?

Bone remodeling

10

What are the 3 bone cell types?

1. Osteoblast
2. Osteoclast
3. Osteocyte

11

Which bone cell type builds bones?

Osteoblast

12

Which bone cell type breakdown bones?

Osteoclast

13

Which bone cell type is a mature bone cell housed in bone matrix?

Osteocyte

14

What are the 3 lifestyle factors that improve bone health?

1. Weight-bearing physical activity
2. Adequate intake of vitamins and minerals
3. Adequate UV exposure

15

Why are weight-bearing activities important for bone health?

It increases bone density

16

What are the 4 lifestyle factors that hurt bone health?

1. Smoking and alcohol consumption
2. Certain medications
3. Excessive phosphorus intake
4. Excessive grain intake

17

What lifestyle factors increase the need for vitamin D?

Smoking and alcohol consumption

18

What 2 lifestyle factors increase magnesium excretion?

1. Alcohol consumption
2. Cancer and diuretic medications

19

How do thyroid hormone, cortisol and diuretics medications effect calcium levels?

They increase calcium excretion

20

What 2 lifestyle factors inhabit calcium absorption?

1. Excessive phosphorus intake
2. Excess grain intake

21

How does excessive grain and phosphorus intake effect calcium levels?

They inhabits calcium absorption

22

What 3 major minerals are important in bone health?

Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus

23

Where is 99% of calcium in the body found?

Bones and teeth

24

What percentage of calcium is found in the bones and teeth?

99%

25

What regulates blood calcium levels?

Vitamin D

26

What 6 factors decrease calcium absorption from food in the gut?

1. Phytic acids and fiber (grains)
2. Plants like spinach
3. Excess Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sodium
4. Tannins in tea and legumes
5. Vitamin D deficiency
6. Diarrhea

27

What 4 factors increase calcium absorption from food in the gut?

Low Calcium status, vitamin D, pregnancy and lactation, and lactose in the diet

28

Bone growth, development, and maintenance require adequate intake of what?

Calcium

29

What are oxalates?

Plants like spinach

30

What are the natural sources of calcium in the diet?

Dairy and bone-in fish