Module 6.2 - Operant Conditioning: Learning Through Consequences Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 6.2 - Operant Conditioning: Learning Through Consequences Deck (42)
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1

operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behaviour is influenced by consequences

2

what is required for learning to take place in operant conditioning?

a response (behaviour) and a consequence (e.g., a reward) are required for learning to take place

3

what does the consequence depend on?

the action

4

law of effect

of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected to the situation, so that, when it (the situation) recurs, they will be more likely to recur.

5

reinforcement

the process in which an event or reward that follows a response increases the likelihood of that response occurring again

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reinforcer

a stimulus that is contingent upon a response, and that increase the probability of that response occurring again

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punishment

the process that decreases the future probability of a response of behaviour

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punisher

a stimulus that is contingent upon a response, and that results in a decrease in behaviour

9

operant chamber

a laboratory apparatus containing levers or keys tat the animal can manipulate

10

true or false: the experimenter can control whether behaviours are rewarded or punished in operant chamber

true

11

positive reinforcement

the strengthening of behaviour after potential reinforcers such as praise, money, or nourishment follow that behaviour

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negative reinforcement

the strengthening of a behaviour because it removes or diminishes an adverse stimulus

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avoidance learing

a specific type of negative reinforcement that removes the possibility that a stimulus will occur

14

what is avoidance learning associated with?

increased activity in the orbitofrontal cortex

15

escape learning

a type of negative reinforcement in which a response removes a stimulus that is already present

16

positive punishment

a process in which a behaviour decreases in frequency because it was followed by a particular, usually unpleasant, stimulus

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negative punishment

when a behaviour decreases because it removes or diminishes a particular stimulus that the individual would like to have

18

primary reinforcers

reinforcing stimuli that satisfy basic motivational needs - needs that affect an individuals ability to survive (and if possible reproduce)

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secondary reinforcers

stimuli that acquire their reinforcing effects only after we learn that they have value

20

reinforcers trigger ______ release in reward centres of the brain

dopamine

21

true or false: reinforcers trigger smaller amounts of dopamine in people prone to high-risk behaviour

FALSE: reinforcers trigger larger amounts of dopamine in people prone to high-risk behaviour

22

true or false: there is a larger dopamine response during learning of stimulus - reward association

true

23

discriminative stimulus

a cue or event that indicates that a response, if made, will be reinforced

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is there a point in responding when the cue isn't present in discriminative stimulus?

no point in responding... no reinforcement will occur

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discrimination

when an operant response is made to one stimulus but not to another, even if they are similar

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generalization

when an operant response takes place to a new stimulus that is similar to the stimulus present during original learning

27

true or false: conditioning is stronger when the reinforcement immediately follows the behaviour

true

28

extinction

the weakening of an operant response when reinforcement is no longer available

29

extinction causes a decrease in what response?

dopamine response

30

shaping

a procedure in which a specific operant response is created by reinforcing successive approximations of that response