Flashcards in Module 6.2 - Operant Conditioning: Learning Through Consequences Deck (42)
a type of learning in which behaviour is influenced by consequences
what is required for learning to take place in operant conditioning?
a response (behaviour) and a consequence (e.g., a reward) are required for learning to take place
what does the consequence depend on?
law of effect
of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected to the situation, so that, when it (the situation) recurs, they will be more likely to recur.
the process in which an event or reward that follows a response increases the likelihood of that response occurring again
a stimulus that is contingent upon a response, and that increase the probability of that response occurring again
the process that decreases the future probability of a response of behaviour
a stimulus that is contingent upon a response, and that results in a decrease in behaviour
a laboratory apparatus containing levers or keys tat the animal can manipulate
true or false: the experimenter can control whether behaviours are rewarded or punished in operant chamber
the strengthening of behaviour after potential reinforcers such as praise, money, or nourishment follow that behaviour
the strengthening of a behaviour because it removes or diminishes an adverse stimulus
a specific type of negative reinforcement that removes the possibility that a stimulus will occur
what is avoidance learning associated with?
increased activity in the orbitofrontal cortex
a type of negative reinforcement in which a response removes a stimulus that is already present
a process in which a behaviour decreases in frequency because it was followed by a particular, usually unpleasant, stimulus
when a behaviour decreases because it removes or diminishes a particular stimulus that the individual would like to have
reinforcing stimuli that satisfy basic motivational needs - needs that affect an individuals ability to survive (and if possible reproduce)
stimuli that acquire their reinforcing effects only after we learn that they have value
reinforcers trigger ______ release in reward centres of the brain
true or false: reinforcers trigger smaller amounts of dopamine in people prone to high-risk behaviour
FALSE: reinforcers trigger larger amounts of dopamine in people prone to high-risk behaviour
true or false: there is a larger dopamine response during learning of stimulus - reward association
a cue or event that indicates that a response, if made, will be reinforced
is there a point in responding when the cue isn't present in discriminative stimulus?
no point in responding... no reinforcement will occur
when an operant response is made to one stimulus but not to another, even if they are similar
when an operant response takes place to a new stimulus that is similar to the stimulus present during original learning
true or false: conditioning is stronger when the reinforcement immediately follows the behaviour
the weakening of an operant response when reinforcement is no longer available
extinction causes a decrease in what response?