Module 8.3 - Language and Communication Flashcards Preview

intro psychology > Module 8.3 - Language and Communication > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 8.3 - Language and Communication Deck (37)
Loading flashcards...
1

language involves combining elements that are inherently meaningless into _________

utterances that convey meaning

2

how did language help our ancestors?

helped them communicate intentions, prevent conflict, and form social groups

3

true or false: early studies showed that the left hemisphere plays a critical role in language

true

4

Aphasia

a language disorder caused by damage to the brain structures that support using and understanding language

5

what showed that language is not a unitary process?

the existence of different types of aphasias

6

brocas area

a region of the left frontal lobe that controls your ability to articulate speech sounds that compose words

7

what does damage of brocas area lead to?

brocas aphasia, a disorder of language production

8

brocas aphasia

speech is difficult to initiate, non-fluent, laboured and halting. intonation and stress patterns are deficient t

9

wernickes area

a region of the left temporal lobe associated with finding the meaning of words

10

damage to wernickes area leads to what?

wernickes aphasia, a disorder of language comprehension

11

wernickes aphasia

speech is preserved, language content is incorrect (word salad), word substitutions are common (paraphasia) and make up words (neologisms)

12

language

a form of communication that involves the use of spoken, written or gestural symbols that are confined in a rule-based form

13

phonemes

the most basic of units of speech sounds

14

true or false: you only need one phoneme to create a sound with meaning

FALSE: you usually need multiple phonemes to create a sound with meaning

15

morphemes

the smallest meaningful units of language

16

semantics

the study of how people come to understand meaning from words

17

syntax

the rules for combining words and morphemes into meaningful phrases and sentences

18

surface structure

the way the sentence is actually spoken, heard or signed

19

deep structure

how the sentence is to be understood

20

pragmatics

the study of non-inguistic elements of language use

21

what does pragmatics include?

the speakers behaviours and the social situation

22

true or false: at 2 months, infants prefer speech sounds to perceptually similar non-speech sounds

true

23

before when do infants respond to most phonemes?`

before 10 months

24

when do infants become sensitive to sounds from our own language?

after 10 months

25

by 20 months, what can infants do?

infants can use perceptual categories to rapidly learn words

26

fast mapping

the ability to map words onto concepts or objects after only a single exposure

27

sensitive periods

a time during childhood in which children brains are primed to develop language

28

when is the sensitive period?

approx. age 7

29

what is a pidgin?

a make-shift language which adult immigrants use to combine languages from different regions

30

true or false: it is much easier to learn additional languages before age 7

true